PHYSICS NOTES

PHYSICS FORM ONE

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS
Science in our lives
Scientists are people trained in science and who practice the knowledge of science. We
require people in industries to work as engineers, technicians, researchers, in hospitals as
doctors, nurses and technologists. Science gives us powerful ideas, instruments and
methods which affect us in our daily lives.
Scientific methods

  1. A laboratory is a building specifically designed for scientific work and may contain
    many pieces of apparatus and materials for use.
  2. A hypothesis is a scientific fact or statement that has not been proven or
    experimented. A law or principle is a scientific fact or statement that has been proven and experimented to be true for all conditions. A theorem is a fact or statement that is true and proven but applicable under specific
    conditions.
    What is physics?
    Physics is a Greek word meaning nature hence it deals with natural phenomena. Physics is therefore a science whose objective is the study of components of matter and their mutual interactions.
  3. Physics is also defined as the study of matter and its relation to energy.A
    physicist is able to explain bulk properties of matter as well as other phenomena observed.
    Branches of physics
  4. Mechanics – the study of motion of bodies under the influence of force.
  5. Electricity – this deals with the movement of charge from one point to another
    through a conductor.
  6. Magnetism – the study of magnets and magnetic fields and their extensive
    applications.
  7. Thermodynamics / heat – this is the study of the transformation of heat from one
    form to another.

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CHAPTER ONE
MAGNETISM
Introduction
Magnets are substances that are able to attract and hold items. Lodestone is the only known
natural magnet which was discovered by the Chinese 2,000 years ago. Other magnets produced
artificially by man are called artificial magnets.
Magnets and non-magnetic materials
Magnetic materials are those that are strongly attracted by magnets while non-magnetic
ones are those that are not affected by magnets. Iron, steel, cobalt and nickel are magnetic
substances, while wood, glass and copper are examples of non-magnetic substances.
Substances that are repelled by magnets are said to be diamagnetic whereas those which are
strongly attracted i.e. iron, nickel, cobalt are called ferromagnetic materials. The materials
that are so lightly attracted such that the magnet seems to have no effect on them are called
paramagnetic materials(mostly non-magnetic materials). Ferrites are a mixture of iron oxide
and barium oxide are the most newly developed magnetic materials. Ceramic magnets or
magnadur magnets are made from ferrites and are very strong.
Properties of magnets

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CHAPTER ONE
LINEAR MOTION
Introduction
Study of motion is divided into two;

  1. Kinematics
  2. Dynamics
    In kinematics forces causing motion are disregarded while dynamics deals with motion of objects and
    the forces causing them.
    I. Displacement
    Distance moved by a body in a specified direction is called displacement. It is denoted by letter‘s’ and
    has both magnitude and direction. Distance is the movement from one point to another. The Si unit for
    displacement is the metre (m).
    II. Speed
    This is the distance covered per unit time.
    Speed= distance covered/ time taken. Distance is a scalar quantity since it has magnitude only. The SI
    unit for speed is metres per second (m/s or ms-1
    )
    Average speed= total distance covered/total time taken
    Other units for speed used are Km/h.
    Examples
  3. A body covers a distance of 10m in 4 seconds. It rests for 10 seconds and finally covers a distance
    of 90m in 60 seconds. Calculate the average speed.
    Solution
    Total distance covered=10+90=100m
    Total time taken=4+10+6=20 seconds
    Therefore average speed=100/20=5m/s
  4. Calculate the distance in metres covered by a body moving with a uniform speed of 180 km/h in
    30 seconds.
    Solution
    Distance covered=speed*time

=1801000/6060=50m/s
=50*30
=1,500m

  1. Calculate the time in seconds taken

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CHAPTER ONE
THIN LENSES.
A lens is conventionally defined as a piece of glass which is used to focus or change the
direction of a beam of light passing through it. They are mainly made of glass or plastic. Lens
are used in making spectacles, cameras, cinema projectors, microscopes and telescopes.
Types of thin lenses.
A lens which is thicker at its centre than at its edges converges light and is called convex or
converging lens. A lens which is thicker at its edges than at its centre diverges light and is
known as concave or diverging lens.

Properties of lenses.

  1. Optical centre – this is the geometric centre of a lens which is usually shown using a
    black dot in ray diagrams. A ray travelling through the optical centre passes through in a
    straight line.
  2. Centre of curvature – this is the geometric centre of the circle of which the lens surface
    is part of. Since lenses have two surfaces there are two centres of curvature. C is used to
    denote one centre while the other is denoted by C

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