E-mail Address and access


i. A computer ii. A telephone line connected to the computer iii. An internal or external modem(an electronic device that changes information that a computer understands to a form that can be sent along a telephone line by radio and viceversa)

-To get an e-mail address, you need to be connected to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) reffered to as the server. -Once connected, the ISP gives you a user name e.g k00395.This is an identification number which is used to identify a client and for billing purposes. -The client chooses a password which must be keyed in to be able to access the internet and its email.Onlu the client should know the password for privacy e.g 0067, Rose, navyblue.

Creating your own e-mail address -Every client must create his/her own e-mail address and reveal it to the ISP when you want to be connected.e.g i. 1 2 3 4 5 ii. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Key 1. – User‟s chosen name. 2. – Pronounced as „at‟desginated the computer to the ISP 3. – the ISP you are connected to.

  1. – the „dot‟-is a must.If absent,the address is incomplete and the message can‟t go through the receiver. 5. – shows the company type/school type. 6. – name of country e.g ke-kenya.

N/B. -An e-mail address is written continuously without space between words or letters. It is written in small letters.

International Servers -Some e-mail addresses like yahoo and hotmail offer free services -To retrieve mail from such organizations, you don‟t have to be connected to an ISP server.This can be done worldwide provided that internet services are available. -The only disadvantage when using free services is that you must write your mail while you are “online” unlike other cases, where you can write your mail “off-line” and then connect to the server when you wish to send the message.This is cheaper and saves you the expense of a big bill.

Sending an e-mail -To be able to send an e-mail, you must have the e-mail address of the recipient. e.g

To: You write the address of the recipient. From: You write the address of the sender Cc: meaning coupon copy- other people who can be sent copies of the same mail. Bc: a blind copy to be seen by the recipient only. Subject: you write the title of the message. -Below the subject is the space for your message. e.g. From : Cc:
3 Subject: Thank you

Dear Joji, Thank you for buying me a computer. I will now be able to get information from the internet, send and receive mail and of course play my favourite computer games. My parents send you their best regards. I‟ll visit you in a week‟s time.

Love Your niece, Julia.

-On the computer menu bar, there are different facilities such as Reply,which enables the recipient to reply to the message.There is also a forward facility which helps the recipient to send the same message to other recipients.

pp.88-92 POSTAL ADDRESS -In letters, common features are: 1. the box number 2. the post code 3. the street/road/building where the post office is. 4. the town/city 5. the country e.g A. Block format B. Idented format

 P.O BOX 5021-00100,                                                The Manager                                 NAIROBI.                                                                               Fortune Bank      KENYA                                                                                     22 High Street      DATE……….                                                                               Leominster                                                                                                               Herefordshire                                                                                                                  HR86 RG 

Great Britain Date………….. EX P. 91


  • Informal letters differ in levels of informality depending on whom the letter is addresses to.

STEPS TO FOLLOW 1. Write the writer‟s address at the top-right corner. 2. Include the postal code. Below the address write the date of writing in full. 3. Skip a line and write the salutation on the left-hand side. 4. Start a new paragraph as you begin to write the body of the letter. (keep rules of paragraphing) 5. The language should be friendly and familiar.The language depends on the relationship between the writer and the person he is writing to.The language must be: -easy to understand -decent and respectable -grammatical 6. At the end of your letter, sign-off.The closing can be: Yours, Yours lovingly, Yours affectionately, Your classmate, e.t.c 7. Put your name below the closing tag. 8. Punctuate your letter properly. At the end of the closing tag, there is a comma and a fullstop is put at the end of the name.


      EX2  P.130   PUBLIC NOTICES 

-A notice is a written or printed statement giving information or drawing attention to the public.

Points to consider

-content- should be accurate – should be very clear – brevity-should be short. -font type and size -use of graphics -use pictures and words -Overall presentation-should be smart and attractive. -should be in a frame. Exercise: Choose one type of notice and write an example.


-An inventory is a detailed list of items.It can be prepared for the purpose of:insurance or to show clear records of the property a person or a company has e.g a school has buildings,furniture,stationery,office equipment library books,kitchen provisions and sporting equipment.

-An inventory contains details about: -quantity of the item -description of the item -date of purchase or delivery -date of issue
-signature of the person removing it from the store -balance of each item after the issue Importance of an inventory -it is used to:  Keep a check on what you have  Provide basic information for quick anditing in a big institution  Keep a record of what needs to be replaced or repaired  Eliminate pilfering (stealing)  Ease the job of management  Give information on items that need constant replacement. Example 16th July 2002: Inventory of Equipment at Musinga and company Serial Item Units Date of purchase Value 1 Television sets 2 January 2002 Ksh.40 000 2 Computers 4 June 2001 Ksh.450 000 3 Telephone sets 10 March 2001 Ksh.100 000 4 Office chairs 60 January 2001 Ksh.180 000 5 Desks 20 January 1999 Ksh.200 000 Exercise: Prepare an inventory of the items of the school can estimate the cost of the item and the date of purchase


-A diary is a personal record of daily events, observations and appointments. -Keeping a diary helps us to:  Be organized  Remember appointments and honour them  Plan our lives well.

-a well kept diary can serve as a record of past events from which we can refer from time to time.
-be brief and selective of what you write down.. -a diary provides you with spaces for every day of the year in which you write down things you have to do in future. E.g June 2007 Monday 1st : 4 pm Mpira stadium-watch a football match. Tuesday 2nd : Dinner with Louis Babes joint 7:30 pm Wednesday 3rd : Drama meeting at Igiza Hall 2.00-4.00pm Thursday 4th : Lunch with mum Nice café:12.30 p.m Friday 5th: Environmental Day At market-communal work All morning Saturday 6th: Meet Kate Lucy Post Office 10.30 am


NIE BK2 PP 96- TOPMARK P.183 PACKING LISTS -A packing list is important for proper preparation before going on a journey.

CONSIDERATIONS TO MAKE BEFORE WRITING THE LIST 1. Where you are going? -location determines the items you are likely to need.e.g if you are going to a cold place,you will need heavy clothes to keep warm. 2. Means of transport -some means of transport like aeroplanes will limit the amount of luggage to carry

  1. Length of stay -the longer you stay, the more the luggage to carry. 4. Purpose e.g if you are going for a short course, you will need writing paper, pens and relevant reference materials.

P.97 Exercise You are a member of your school‟s basketball team.your team has been invited for a tournament in another district.the tournament lasts two days.write your packing list in order of usefulness.

NIE BK1 PP. Imaginative compositions

-Events in an imaginative essay are not real but imagined. -The writer should identify the purpose of writing the essay i.e to present an essay that is interesting to the reader. -They are meant to entertain but some may contain themes that inform or educate the reader.

Points to consider

  1. Setting – the wrietr should decide where the story/ events take place. E.g in town, rural arrears, in a forest, etc. 2. Plot – choose the plot for the events. A plot is a story line which sets out the logical order in which the events will follow. Events may not follow a chronological order especially when the writer uses flashbacks and foregrounding. 3. Choice of characters. Will be determined by roles assigned to them in the plot, and setting. They should be suitable. E.g ogres or mionsters are not realistic characters. 4. Themes. Theme refers to the main idea in the story. It should involve two or more people. They are not stated but are implied. 5. Time. When the incidents take place should be stated clearly. Time is thought of in terms of season, an historical era, post independence and contemporary time. -It can also be thought of in terms of a timespan e.g a week, or a year.
  2. The style -varies according to the purpose. e.g i. metaphors ii. similes iii. personification iv. dialogue- speech between two or more people. v. Tense-is past tense, past perfect or past continuous. Other tenses can be used.

N/B i. A beginning-which introduces the essay, gives the setting introduces characters,conflicts,etc. ii. The middle-body Shows the progression and makes up the main bodyof the shows the challenges involving the main character(s) and how the conflict is resolved.It provides the climax of the story. iii. a conclusion-which signals end of an essay.

Exercise i. Write a composition beginning with or ending with: a) As I watched the spider rebuilding its web I realized that I too, had to go back home and try to rebuild my broken life. ii. Write a composition ending with: …but they arrived too late. iii. Write a composition to illustrate the meaning of the proverb: a. Patience pays. b. Once bitten twice shy. c. All that glitters is not gold. d. One good chance deserves another. e. A stitch in time saves nine.


                               SHOPPING LISTS -help one to identify requirements, plan courses of action and use time efficiently. 

     Activity p.137 Imagine that your mother is very busy and so she asks you to write for her,her weekly shopping list.Write it out 


1Kg sugar -a bar of soap ½ kg salt -onions 1 kg meat -steel wool Kales -tea leaves 1 litre of paraffin -yams Carrots -tomatoes ½ kg cooking fat -royco cubes Sweet potatoes -baking powder Food colour -wheat flour-2 kg Finger millet flour 2 kg

Exercise Your school debating club has invited the corresponding club in a neighbouring school for an afternoon debate and tea on Saturday. Thirty five visitors are expected and your club has a membership of forty. i) List what has to be provided for the occasion. ii) Draft a plan of action in table form.



                                             DIALOGUES NIE BK1 P.111 

                    RULES OF WRITING A DIALOGUE i. The speaker‟s name is written on the left-hand side of the book. ii. A colon is placed after the speaker‟s name. iii. Each time the speaker speaks, his/her name is written on the left hand side followed by a colon and his/her exact words written down. iv. Long speeches are not natural. In reality, people make short/brief comments. v. If the dialogue is written in a continuous prose, use quotation marks (“ ”)to indicate the actual words spoken by the character.Begin a new paragraph each time a different character speaks. vi. In play-format, quotation marks are not used.other punctuation rules are kept. vii. Contracted forms of words are allowed.e.g  You‟re =you are   I‟ll =I willI‟d =I would viii. Stage directions (S.D)  - i.e explanations about what a speaker does, what gestures he/she uses and his/her facial expressions-are put in brackets.e.g (A man is enjoying his morning coffee when his wife slaps him on the back of his head.) Man: (puzzled) Why have you done this?see some of the coffee has split on my                    trouser. Wife: (showing him a piece of paper and waves it before his face).    I found this in your pocket. It has the name „Rosemary‟written on it. You‟d better have an explanation.       

Exercise 1. Imagine that youu have read a story but have not quite understood go to the teacher to seek clarification.write down the dialogue you would have with him. 2. your friend has suggested that you discuss the most effective ways of revising English examination.write down the conversation you would have with him/her.
NIE BK2 PP251-254
Business/formal letters/official letters
FORMAT a) Address -the addresses must be two. The sender‟s address is at the top right-hand corner of the page. Below the sender‟s address, the date is written. -The recipient‟s address is written on the left hand side below the date.

b) Salutation-it comes below the recipient‟s address.i.e Dear sir/madam.

c) Reference „RE:‟ = „with regard to‟. This is a summary statement of the purpose of the letter,written in capital letters and underlined. d) The body-communicates the purposeof the letter.the paragraphs are usually short and each deals with one point/topic but should fully communicate the idea.

e) Valediction: the closing remark is “Yours faithfully”

f) Signature and name.the signature is written below the valediction and must be written by hand.below it print the name of the sender.the position held in that institution may be indicated below the name.


  1. Formality-they are formal and one should not include idle talk or should be impartial and not show the attitude one has towards the polite in tone. 2. Language-the letter should be grammatically correct. 3. Purpose-write the letter with a purpose in mind,go directly to the point 4. Brevity-be clear,brief and avoid irrelevant issues. 5. Acknowledgement-a business letter written in reply to another usuallyacknowledges the former one or quotes the reference number.
    Example Kerera Secondary School, P.O Box 3264-40200 KISII. 11TH January, 2014. The Supplies Manageress, Chui Bookshop, P.o Box 7050-00100, NAIROBI. Dear Madam, RE: ORDER OF SCIENCE BOOKS We would like to order the following books:  forty copies of form two biology by Kenya literature bureau  twenty copies of chemistry form two by jomo kenyatta publisher  thirty copies of physics form one by longhorn publishers

Please send the books before 30th January, 2014.

Yours faithfully, Mwangi. Headteacher.


The Supplies Manageress, Chui Bookshop, P.o Box 2050-00100, NAIROBI 15th October, 2011. The Headteacher, Kerera Secondary School, P.o Box 3264-40200, KISII. Dear Sir, RE: ORDER OF SCIENCE BOOKS Thank you for your letter dated 11th October ordering science books.we regret to inform you that the books you require are out of stock at present.we expect a new supply in two months‟ time.

Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience.

Yours sincerely.

Grace Moya. Supplies Manageress.

EX.P.254 -The address on the envelope is written in the centre and in block form.e.g

Chui Bookshop, P.o Box 1484-00100 NAIROBI.
-when writng a public notice; -give it a brief clear tittle -use big clear writing -wite short,clear phrases -Give each important point aseparate line eg

  1. Write a public notice about each of the following subjects; a) a meeting of the drama club b) a lost book c) a broken bridge on a public road 2. Design a poster advertising an inter –school macth. NB Posters can be seen everywhere. e.g -along the road side -on sides of buldings -on trees in villages and towns – on rooftops.





Headstart Bk 2, NIE Bk 2 pp.50-52 , NIE Bk 4 pp. 70-71

  • Each time we have a product to sell or a service to offer, we look for a way of letting people know that we have a product or service, the strong points of the product and how they can access it. POINTS TO CONSIDER 1. Know the target audience of the product or service well to help you to decideon: a) the age of the people to use e.g. No country uses children to advertise alcoholic drinks. b) the language used should appeal to your audience. c) the graphics and pictures to be used. 2. Choose the appropriate medium that will reach your target audience. If you are advertising farm implements or products, you should choose a medium that reaches people in the rural areas. 3. The message may be direct or implied. E.g. when young people see famous and successful people smoking, they aspire to be like them and many may start smoking. 4. Identify the selling pointsof the product. 5. Decide if you will use pictures and balance them with words. 6. Appealing visual images and emotive language are incorpoted in an advertisement to persuade or convince us to do or buy something. 7. An advertisement has a heading, body-containing details and contact address. Ex. NIE BK 2 p.
  1. Imagine that you have a car to sell. List all details you think you should include and advertise it.


attention arresting headline

details and conditions

Location & contact address


Enroll at CLEAN JOB for Free CVs and immediate Placement.

2nd Floor. Kems House P.O BOX 1047-00100 NAIROBI E-mail: mobile:0722088414

NIE BK 3 P.305-306 , I .E P.93 , NIE BK2 P.120.


A journal is a record of an individual‟s impressions of agiven occurrance, event, things or persons. In your journal you describe: (i) people (ii) world games, events (iii) personal happenings

The style of ajournal is closer to exposition than narration . Although the evntsare recorded as they happen, the feelings they inspire are more important than the events themselves. Ajournal writer seeks to capture the events in relation to their impact on the senses and that is what he sets out to record . The tense is past tense. A journal appealsto the senses of touch, taste, smell, hearing and sight.

EXERCISE. 1. Recall a striking event that you participated in and write a journal entry describing it. 2. Imagine that you had afour day tour to a tourist centre .Write a journal on what excited, embarrassed, depressed or annoyed you during the tour.




  1. Reminders 2. Personal Journals 3. Notes of Thanks 4. Notes of Congratulations 5. Notes of condolences 6. Imaginative composition 7. Letters of application 8. Synopsis
  2. Report – newspaper reports, simple reports 10. Argumentative essays 11. Notification of meetings 12. Agenda 13. Minute writing 14. Memoranda 15. Telegrams


-Our imagination is built on our knowledge and experiences. – One can be given a sentence to begin a composition with it or end in it. Also you can be given a proverb or a saying to write a story so as to bring out its meaning. – Write your composition to an appropriate length.

Points to consider
 Create events and people that are convincing e.g. avoid stories about ogres/monsters.  The sequence of events must be logical e.g. we cannot have a student driving his own car.  Quality depends to a large extent on the characters you create and how they relate to each other.  The composition should clearly describe scenes, sounds and thoughts that would make a reader form impressions and opinions.  You must plan your essay using an outline.  Make the essay lively by using direct speech.


Write a composition to illustrate the meaning of the proverb: Make hay while the sun shines. Write a composition starting with or ending with the sentence: „As I watched the spider rebuilding its web, I realized that I too had to go back home and try to rebuild my broken life.”
Write a composition ending with……….. but they arrived too late. NIE BK 3 P. 87 SYNOPSIS= PRÉCIS=ABSTRACT pl. synopses  It is a short account comprising one to three pages of something longer.  It summarizes the information in books, films, plays and research papers. It is found at the beginning of a text.  To write a good synopsis take into account:

  1. The blurb.
     Read the blurb at the back cover of the book.  It helps you to know who the write or writers are and their experiences in writing.  It outlines the plot, key issues and topics covered in the book.  It may state how the book is rated by authorities on the subject.
  2. The text.
     Survey the book from which the synopsis will be written. This involves studying:  the introduction,  the table of contents,  chapters or scenes and  summaries of the book.
  3. Reading the text.
     Take note of its strong and weak points.  Note areas of interest which have been highlighted.  Select and give only the most important ideas and points from the text.  Write in complete but short and compact sentences.
     We normally use the present simple tense in a synopsis.

Write a one page synopsis of a book of your choice.



 It is polite to thank people who have been helpful to us in one way or another. It encourages them to offer hospitality to others.  It also reflects the kind of person you are. You can express your gratitude through conversation or telephone.  You can also write a thank you note or a thank you card.


 It should be brief.  It should be confined to the purpose of which it was written (conveying gratitude)  It should not be use as an opportunity to remind the recipient of unfulfilled obligation.  The note between the writer and the recipient would influence the choice of words or register.  If the note is written on behalf of a group of people, your position in the group should be specified. Example
A synopsis of the Novel Things Fall Apart

Chinua Achebe‟s novel Things Fall Apart was first published in 1958. Set among the Igbo people of Eastern Nigeria at the beginning of the 19th century, it is about the clash between African and European culture at the beginning of British colonization. It is also the tragic story of a strong man who is destroyed by a combination of his personal shortcomings and circumstances beyond his control. The novel starts with a convincing portrayal of Igbo traditional, pre-colonial society and culture, with all its beliefs, social institutions, customs, technologies, arts, and crafts, and its love of elegant language. Most of this is seen through the interaction between the society and the protagonist, Okonkwo, who is a successful and respected leader in Umuofia society when the first Europeans get there.

Mildly opposed by characters like Okonkwo but mostly ignored by the community, the white strangers start quietly converting people to their ways. Meanwhile, Okonkwo gets into trouble with his community. He is forced into a seven-year exile for killing a relative. He returns to find that colonialism and Christianity are taking an increasingly firm hold on his community and badly affecting his Igbo culture. He tries to unite and mobilize his people to fight back but he fails, and ends up committing suicide.



Think of a situation in the past where you needed to thank someone. Determine what you are going to thank them for. Write an appropriate thank you note for their action.

Hey Cliff

Thanks a bunch for dropping by. Your visit gave my Spirit the boost I needed Cheers!

Dear Adan, Thank you so much for the support you gave me during the preparation for my wedding. I appreciate both the morl and financial support you gave me and my husband. During our wedding, you made sure that nothing went wrong. I don‟t know what I would have done without you. May God bless you abundantly. I look forward to seeing you when I return from our honeymoon.

Your coussin, Mogaka.



It should: 1. be brief 2. state the particular achievement for which congratulations are due. 3. convey feelings of joy, excitement or pride in the recipient‟s achievement. 4. convey a tone of sincerity. 5. express hope of continued prosperity NB pay attention to the language rather than the frame.


On my own behalf and on behalf of the staff, I wish to congratulate the hockey team for their excellent performance in the recently concluded championships.

Your conduct in the pitch and your success at the tournament is the reflection of the spirit of the school.

We are proud of your achievements and hope that you will retain the trophy next year as well.

Well done!
Paul sang Principal


Well done man! You did it! A straight A! You are going places pal! You‟ve got what it takes.



A.I.E P. 167 K.C.S.E Golden tips pp.67-70



 They should be clearly set out with headings and sub-headings where necessary.  They should contain all the necessary details but avoid repetition of ideas.  Reports should be written in an appropriate language ensuring correct sentence structures, spelling and punctuation.  Coherence. The report should be organized in such a way that the points are presented in a logical manner for smooth flow of ideas. Related ideas should be put together. Avoid the unnecessary details.  Impartiality. Use the passive voice.  Clarity- Go straight to the point. This ensures that the report is clear and ambiguities are avoided.  The report should be relevant to the topic. It calls for a factual practical account.

Contents of a report

Heading – The report should have the title as a heading. It indicates what the report is all about. Introduction – It gives: the scope of the report, terms of reference, background information and abrief description of the methods used during the investigation. It consists of: – what the report is about – where the investigation was carried out – the people who participated – why it was necessary – who commissioned the investigation Terms of reference – This section states the specific purpose of writing the report and the scope. This shows the range of coverage. Procedure – This section gives the information on how the data was collected e.g. it may have been collected through questionnaire or an interview schedule or document analysis or test or focus group discussion. Findings: Involves the outcome of the information collected after its analysis. Say what you observed in the field. Write in the past tense. Conclusion: State the deductions arrived at through reasoning from the data collected. Recommendations: These are given if the study requires further action. E.g. – Recommendation is that a new English club started to give students an opportunity to practice what they have learnt. Signing off – Indicate the name of the person who compiled the report and his position in the committee.

Example Imagine that you are the secretary of a committee that was set up in Malezi School to look into the cause of Perennial water shortage and also suggest the recommendations and how to alleviate the problem.



There had been a constant water shortage for a period of three years. The Board of Governors commissioned a committee of five members to find out the root cause of the problem. The committee comprised of the following:

Felister Nyang‟au – Chair person Eliud Nyang‟echi – Secretary Silvia Mutemi – Member Tom Kazungu – Member

The members were given one week to complete their work and present their report.


The committee found out three causes of water shortage in the school.

Old piping

The survey revealed that the piping was more than twenty five years old. It had not been replaced since the founding of the school. Many of the pipes were rotten and water leaked in many places which made water not to last long in the reservoirs. In addition, some pipes were blocked in several points by rust and silt.

Faulty water pump

The committee realized that the pumping station was not operating as required. The Members learnt that the pump had broken down six times in the first 3 months of the year. It was also clear that the person in charge of the pump was unskilled and could not carry out minor maintenance repairs.

Carelessness and misuse

Misuse was also found to contribute to water shortage. It was observed that water was unnecessarily being used to water grass lawns during the dry season. Several taps in the dorm area were found running unattended, a pointer to the possibility that the students were irresponsibly wasting water.

Conclusion and Recommendations From the survey findings, it was clear that some action needed to be done for the causes of water shortage to be eliminated. The committee came up with the following recommendations.

Old pipes should be replaced with new ones immediately. The school should purchase a new water pump and employ a skilled person to operate it. Students should be taught how to conserve water. Unnecessary watering of grass lawns should be stopped forthwith.

Compiled by

James Baraza Secretary


A. Last year, the district experienced severe famine. An agricultural Committee was set up to investigate ways of preventing the outbreak in the future. As the secretary to the committee, compile a report of the findings and recommendations. B. There has been wide spread cheating of exams in the district, The District Education Officer has appointed a committee of five members mandated to investigate possible causes of the problem and give recommendations. You are the Secretary of the committee and are therefore, expected to write a report.

NEWSPAPER REPORTS NIE bk 3 p. 129, KCSE Golden Tips p.79

Points to note  The heading is written in bold type.  Sometimes there are sub-headings. These convey the key message of the report but are not always grammatically structured.  The identity of the reporter is stated or his connection with the newspaper.  The first paragraph and even the first sentence summarizes the report.  The report is written in the past tense because the event has already taken place.  Headlines could be in the past tense, present tense or in the passive voice.  Usually there is a mixture of direct and indirect speech in the report since eye witnesses are interviewed and their comments quoted.  The language should be simple.  At times pictures and captions accompany the report.  Because of space. Most reports are brief. The report should be objective.  Newspaper articles are about new information about specific and timely events.


When writing argumentative essays, arguments from both sides are considered and a conclusion is reached. There are usually diversive views about the topic under discussion.

Characteristics of argumentative essays

 There should be a general topic.  Two or more conflicting points of view should be discussed.  Arguments for and against each point of view are given.  Presented points should be expanded to help in paragraph expansion. The writer should draw a conclusion from the arguments. It can be for or against what is proposed in the writing.  Argumentative writing is like a debate; the only difference is that the contrasting points of view are discussed by the same person. The writer uses connectors of addition and contrast to project different views. E.g. however, nevertheless, but, on the other hand, contrary to.

Ex. P 165. UPE.

Excercise Boys and girls should have an equal share of their parents‟ property.


 Notes of condolences express encouragement and comfort to the bereaved. Though it is common to be at a loss for words on such occasions, writing notes of condolences gives you the time and the distance to choose your words appropriately.  These notes should be brief and to the point.  The choice of the words is governed by the relationship between the sender and the recipient.

 Messages of condolences should:  Express sorrow at the loss of the departed e.g. – I have learnt with deep sorrow of the untimely death of your dear mother. – It is with great sadness that we have received the news of your father‟s death.  Appreciate the value of life of the departed e.g. – Our school, to which she dedicated twenty four years of her life will miss her greatly. – The gap she leaves behind will be difficult to fill.  Encourage and give hope to the bereaved. Our prayers are with you in these difficult times.
May God give you the fortitude to bear the loss.



A guest list helps one: 1. Not to leave out closest friends or people of importance 2. To address people by their proper names and titles 3. Identify speakers who would have relevant information

NB. It is impolite to put down a person‟s name as a guest of Honour without prior permission. The number of people invited depends on the capacity to host them effectively in terms of refreshments and space.


 Type of party e.g Birthday, fundraising. Will determine the number and type of guests to be invited  Time of party or event. (day or night)  Venue of the party- is it possible to get public transport? Some places may be inaccessible.  Do you require a Guest of Honour?

The above considerations, categorize the guests as:  Family- brothers, grandparents, aunts, etc  Neighbours  Classmates  Associates – in sports, work, etc

Exercise Imagine that you are hosting an end of year for Wildlife club. Using the criteria given above, compile a Guest List for the party.


 It is important when one has a lot to do within a short time. It helps us to save time and plan things in advance.  Focus our energy so that we do not waste time.  Remember to do important things first. Exercise

It is now a festive season and you intend to go out. There are a number of things you should do before the celebration. Write „a things to do list‟ to have your plans ahead. e.g


Imagine that you are going away for two days. Write a things to do list in order of priority.

  1. Wash, iron and pack all the clothes. 2. Arrange for someone to take care of the pets. 3. Inform the neighbours. 4. Call the host to confirm the arrival time. 5. Store any cooked food in the (fridge) freezer. 6. Wash and clean all the utensils. 7. Pull out the T.V plug. 8. Check the gas cooker and turn it of. 9. Shut all the windows. 10. Draw all the curtains. 11. Put out all the lights. 12. Lock all the doors. 13. Lock the gate. 14. Inform friends about the absence.


 Agenda consists of issues for discussion at a meeting.


  1. Determine the matter that needs to be discussed in relation to the group objectives. 2. Decide whether the matter need to be discussed or it is a mere announcement. Announcements can be pinned on the notice boards or be made orally at the assembly. 3. Consider the length of the meeting. 4. Consider how the matter to be discussed concerns the people invited to the meeting. 5. Decide whether there are any subsidiary matters that need brief discussion. 6. The agenda then should be clearly stated. Agenda statements go along with notification of meetings.


AGENDA I. Opening remarks. II. Reading of minutes from previous meeting.

A notification should answer some basic questions. e.g.

 Who is invited to the meeting? E.g. Is it a meeting of:  Executive Committee  Club members  General Public?  Who issues the notification of the meeting?  Where would the meeting take place? – Venue.  When will the meeting take place? – Date and time of meeting.  What would be discussed? – Agenda
 Emphasize punctuality.  Notices can be issued electronically, through the print media or the radio.  In a school, Notice of meeting is issued at announcements at assembly or Notice Board, or through letters to other schools. Example


There will be a meeting of all members of Nyabitiro Farmers Cooperatyive Society on 25th November, at Daraja Mbili store at 10 o‟clock.


i. Opening remarks ii. Reading of minutes of the previous meeting iii. Adoption of the financial report iv. Milk storage facility proposal v. Agriculture Minister‟s visit vi. A.O.B



Minutes are a record of what was agreed rather than what is said rather than what was discussed. They help those involved to follow up issues discussed and take up appropriate action. Minutes indicate:

  1. The heading. It must have: the name of the group meeting, the venue of the meeting, date and time of the meeting. 2. Record of attendance. Records names of the members who are present physically, names of members who are absent but have sent apologies and names of those absent and have not sent apologies. 3. In attendance. Are people who attend the meeting but are not members of the group. e.g the principal may be in attendance in a meeting of a club. These give guidance to the members. They are also called ex-officio members .Names of office bearers come first.

Minutes are written using the 3rd person or the passive voice. Recording should be factual. Use the past tense.

Numbering of minutes. e.g

MIN. 3/01/12 Prefects’ Privileges 3- represents the item on the agenda. 12-the year in which the meeting was conducted in. 01 – represents the month of January in which the meeting was held. MIN – is abbreviation for minute.

Preliminaries – are opening remarks of a meeting from the chairperson. These may include a welcoming note or a prayer. Confirmation of minutes of the previous meeting – minutes of the previous meeting are read and confirmed. One person proposes the minutes to be a true record and another person seconds that proposal. If the group meets for the first time there are no minutes to confirm. Matters arising – Are issues appearing in the previous minutes that require clarification or discussion in the current meeting. The agenda of the current meeting is discussed after matters arising are put to rest. Any Other Business [AOB] are issues raised by members after exhausting all isues in the agenda. They are not in the original agenda. Adjournment. The meeting comes to an end. It comes with closing remarks and mostly a prayer. The date for the next meeting may be written here. Ending- consists of a space for confirmation and signing.




Mercy Keiri – chairperson Tom Wafula – secretary Chebet Kipkorir – treasurer Ann Wambua – member Aggrey Monda “ Geoffrey Guto “


Zipporah Nyali – member Peter Koech “


Benson Teres


Patrick Okeo – Patron Mr. Joash Mutua – District Environmental Officer

MIN. 1/1/12 Preliminaries A member led in the opening prayer. The chairperson called the meeting to order at 4.10 p.m. she welcomed the members and thanked them for keeping time. She introduced Mr. Mutua District Environmental Officer who was in attendance.

MIN 2/1/12 Confirmation of previous minutes

The secretary read the minutes of the previous meeting. Wambua proposed and Guto seconded that the minutes were a true record for the meeting‟s proceedings.
MIN 3/1/12 Matters arising

MIN 43/10/11 Tree planting project

A member wanted to know why the club‟s tree planting project which had been proposed in the previous meeting had not taken off. The chairperson explained that unknown people had destroyed the club‟s tree nursery. Members agreed that the project needed to be revived.

MIN 4/1/12 Community cleaning project

The members discussed and agreed that they would continue with their community project. they agreed that the following week, on a Saturday, they would clean Keumbu Market which had heaps of litter. Two members were put in charge of the project. Mr. Mutua promised to provide litter bins and other necessary equipment.

MIN 5/1/12 Raising money

Members felt that it was important to raise enough money to fund the club‟s activities. the members requested the patron to approach the principal with a request to allow the club to run the school canteen. Mr. Mutua also informed the members that the club would be given funds by through the District Environmental Office. However, the club has to be registered with District Environmental Office first.

MIN 6/1/12 Membership

The members agreed that they will encourage more students to join the club. It was also agreed that the membership fees be Sh. 20. This would encourage more students to enrol.

MIN 7/1/12 Any Other Business

A member thanked Mr. Mutua for attending the meeting and for giving them insight on environmental matters. ii. The secretary promised to circulate the meeting‟s proceedings in good time before the next meeting.

MIN 8/1/12 Adjournment

There being no other business, the meeting ended at 5.40 p.m. with a prayer by Aggrey Monda. The next meeting will be held on 21st February at 4.10 p.m. at the same venue.


Chairperson: …………………………….. Signature …………………… Date ……………

Secretary: …………………………….. Signature …………………… Date ………………



They include;  Letters written by you to an official body e.g You may want to write a letter to a daily newspaper about certain issues you feel strongly about or to the local council complaining about garbage collection in your area  Letters from an official to another. The principal of the neighbouring school may write a letter to another principal.  Letters from an official to you. E.g You may be the chairperson of your youth club in your area and an official writes to you requesting you to perform a certain duty.

FORMAT Sender’s address – Write it at the right hand corner of the page. The name of the city or town should be written in capital letters.

The date should be written below the sender‟s address e.g 17th January 2012

Reference number. It may indicate the department e.g. ENG –English Department or file number.

The title and address of the receiver – This address should be complete and have all the details that would be on the mailing address.

The through address. This is required when one writes a letter through his immediate boss or principal or patron. The person whose through address appears on the letter reads it and then forwards it to the actual receiver. If it is the same as the sender‟s address, then do not repeat it.

Attention pointer – used when one writes a letter to a big institution necessitating him/her to direct it to the proper person or right side. e.g

Attention: Mr. Joseph Koech For the attention of: Miss Dolphin Orare

Salutation – use Dear Sir or Dear madam – one at a time not both Subject heading – gives an immediate prominence of the subject of the letter. i.e RE: meaning with regard to. It is written in capital letters and underlined. The letter – write in paragraphs, introduce the letter by stating the reason(s) for writing – the body would have the facts that you are presenting. -The conclusion may have what you want the recipient to do for you.

(a) Valediction – Your letter should end „Yours faithfully‟ “Y” is capitalized „f‟ is small. (b) Signature: Business letters must be signed by the sender. It should be written above the name of the sender. The name of the sender should be in capital letters. Below the name write the designation. E.g

Yours faithfully,

Dolphin Orare

Carbon copy (cc) is a copy of the letter given to another person who needs to be aware of the contents of the letter. Write Cc followed by the name or title of the person to whom the copy of the letter is given. If the person writing is in the same institution, do not put full address, if not, include full address.

Attached documents: What you have enclosed is shown by the heading: Encl(s) {meaning Enclonsures} Example.


REF NO. 111/03/12


Thro‟ The patron music club

Dear Sir,


I would like to invite members of your Music Club to our Music Gala Night which will be held in our school hall on 2nd March, 2012 from 6.00 p.m in the evening to 10.30 p.m.

We would appreciate it very much if your Music Club would perform one masterpiece, a folk song and a dance to raise the curtain. The mayor of Mombasa City Council has kindly accepted to grace the occasion as the Chief Guest.

I have enclosed the programme. Please let me hear from you as soon as you can.

Yours Faithfully,

William Otwori Secretary Music Club

Cc Patron Music Club Magomeni Secondary school

Patron Music Club Matunga Secondary School P.O Box 10102 Mshimba

Encl(s) Music Gala programme Two invitation cards


Write a letter to the Municipal Council complaining about Garbage collection in your market.


 A telegram is a message that is transmitted by a telegraph.  In writing a telegram, every word costs money. There is a standing charge for the 1st 10 words. If you want to save money, say precisely what you want in a few words.

Leave out:  Determiners : a, an, the, some, any e.g. The parcel arrived this morning.


 Pronouns: I, he, them, she, they, e.g.

She was admitted yesterday


 Words like possessive nouns and adjectives. E.g. his/ our/ their/her


 Prepositions: e.g. on, in, at e.g I saw JOSEPH at the market


 A full stop is indicated by the word „STOP‟ in a telegram. Numerals can be used instead of words. E.g. forty two – 42.  The sender‟s name is also counted as a word and should be written after the message. E.g.


Activity p.333 – 334


 A memoranda or memo is an internal communication document. It can only be sent within different offices of the same institution and not elsewhere.  However, there are other memoranda, structured differently that are issued by workers or a delegation to a visiting senior government officer , donors or senior management, stating needs, requests or demands.  Some offices have set formats for their memoranda. In the absence of such a format, officers design their own formats, which include the following details:

  1. reference number of communication memorandum 2. name and position of the one to whom the memoranda is addressed 3. name and position of others who need to know about this communication 4. name and position of sender. 5. date of communication 6. title or subject of memorandum 7. content. The content of a memorandum or memo is usually very brief and direct.


Emerald High School is hosting the district inter-school debating competition scheduled for 18th June. Below is a memo from the Debating Club patron to the school cateress asking her to make arrangements for the meals.


Emerald High school
The Sky is the Limit
Internal Memo

REF. NO: 57/5/2013
TO: June Mwaniki Cateress FROM: Eric Lagat Patron Debating Club Cc: James Mwalukuku Principal Pius Opiyo Bursar

   Date: 10th June 

Subject: Lunch for Guest Students

Our school will be hosting the District Inter-school competition on Friday 18th June. The Principal has kindly agreed to offer hospitality to visiting schools.

We expect that the sixty students from invited schools will have 10 o‟clock tea and lunch with our students.

Kindly make the necessary arrangements. Thank you.


  1. Letters of Request 2. Recipes 3. Letters of Enquiry 4. Speeches 5. Book Review 6. Questionnaires 7. E-Mails 8. Faxes 9. Confidential Reports 10. Autobiography 11. Curriculum Vitae 12. Biography 13. Expository Writing 14. Giving instructions to Family and Friends


 Can be formal or informal  In both cases the sender must state their request clearly giving the recipient sufficient information to enable them to determine whether or not to act on the request. Informal requests

 We borrow things, ask for information or seek favours from our friends, acquaintances and relatives. This is put in informal requests.  When borrowing items, know that you are likely to inconvenience the other party. As such, you need to offer due apologies and promise to return the item the soonest possible. The degree of informality varies;  Letters of request should give the addressed the freedom to decide whether they can oblige the request or not. It is impolite to coerce for support.

Formal requests

Follow the format of formal letters. They seek information or service. Though brief, they contain all the necessary information.

Example p. 2a
Utu Wema Secondary School P.O. Box 206- 50103 MALABA 10th January 2013
The Curator
Mt Elgon Museum P.O. Box 46-30200 Kitale

Dear Sir/Madam

                     RE: SCHOOL VISIT 

The form four class would like to make a guided tour of the museum on the 17th January as part of their cultural appreciation project. They are interested in seeing artifacts, images and housing structures collected at your museum as part of the cultural heritage of people from Western Kenya.

Could you let me know if the proposed date is suitable for your education staff ? Also advise us, regarding the costs and any other requirements. Any inconvenience in view of the short notice is regretted.

I look forward to your earliest response.

Thank you.

Yours faithfully

Vincent Obure Headteacher


At times, a request may be difficult to honour. In such a case, one needs to decline it politely.

Acknowledge the request. State your willingness to honour it. Explain that you cannot honour the request without going into minute details. E.g.



Dear Mr. Wangamati


We have received your letter dated 10th August. Thank you for the interest you have in our work. We regret we will not be able to receive your students on 17th JANUARY as requested due to earlier commitments. We would however be glad to reschedule it to a date suitable to your learners next term.

Thank you for your understanding.

Yours sincerely Sign Kijana Mjomba Curator

NIE Bk4 pp. 39-43 RECIPES

Dfn: is a set of ingredients and instructions on how to prepare a food dish. It consists of: 1. the name of the dish 2. ingredients and their quantities 3. the instructions on how to prepare the dish 4. suggestions on how many people to eat it and how to serve the dish 5. the length of cooking


Fried liver for two


250 grams beef liver 1 green chili chopped 1 teaspoon ginger 1 onion, sliced 1 big tomato, chopped
1 tablespoon vegetable oil 1 teaspoon tomato puree salt to taste


  1. Cut the liver into small pieces and fry it in the oil. 2. Add a little chilli and ginger until the meat juices are released and the meat is almost cooked. 3. Add the onions, tomatoes and the puree. 4. Turn the fire down to a slow simmer so as not to burn the puree. 5. Let it simmer for another five minutes and then turn off the heat. 6. The liver can be eaten with ugali, rice or irio. Exercise

A friend of yours is organizing a get- together for ten people and she has asked you to prepare a dish for one course. Write a recipe for the dish that you will prepare for the occasion.


 Are letters in which one wants to enquire about something.  One may inquire about a lot of things. e.g to:  Find out from the Head teacher when schools are opening and what one needs to carry.  Enquire from a college what courses they offer and the qualifications required for each.  Find out details of an oncoming event or excursion.  Inquire from a company whether they manufacture or have in stock particular goods you are interested in.  The format of enquiry letters is that of business letters. e.g p. 60

Ex. 61
TULIPE PARISH, P.O. BOX 423160200, MERU. 3RD MAY, 2013.


Dear Sis. Lucilla,


I am a retired teacher and I am writing to enquire whether you have a room in your home to shelter two young girls. The two girls have escaped from home after being threatened with Female Genital Mutilation by the parents and the community. They have been hiding in my house for the last two weeks and I am afraid that their security is not fully guaranteed as the parents may find girls‟ hideout and forcefully take them away.

I will be grateful if you could shelter them for the time being, and also admit them in your boarding school as the threat is immense. Both girls are in standard three.

Please contact me using the following telephone number 0766066077

Yours sincerely,


Margaret Omondi.


The speaker‟s appearance, grooming, posture and gestures have an impact on the audience. When you write a speech for yourself, make a few basic notes to serve as a speech outline. When writing a speech for someone else, you must recognize the audience and the speaker. Research on the subject and try to write it. Ascertain certain facts, figures and dates to avoid being challenged and embarrassed by the audience.

Writing the speech

  1. Acknowledge significant persons in the audience in order of seniority. e.g Mr. Paul Ekaran, Chairperson, Turkana County council, Mrs Lucy Mukami, District Education Officer, Turkana, Mr. Eliud Lopokoit, Chairperson, Board of Governors, Mr. Elijah PTA Chairperson, Mr. Onsongo Keronche, Head teacher, teachers, parents, students, ladies and gentlemen. 2. Present each point of your speech in a brief but well developed paragraph. e.g. First of all, I would like to commend all of you on my own behalf and on behalf of the Board of Governors for the support you have given us throughout the year.

Secondly, I want to urge you all to look at what has brought us this far and made us who we are in education.

We all take pride in the excellent performance of this school. We recognize that school facilities, the staff dedication and the parents‟ unfailing support play an important role in getting good results. Above all, we recognize that it‟s the individual dedication of each student to maintain the
culture of this school and to reach his/her chosen goals that really makes the difference. Remember that there cannot be a school without you students. 3. Sign post your speech by use of appropriate connectors of sequence e.g. firstly, secondly, in conclusion. 4. Stimulate your audience involvement using the collective term „You‟ addressing individuals in a crowd might have a negative effect. e.g. Which parent does not wish what is good for their child? [Rhetoric question]. – I am greatly encouraged by the sacrifice you have made to give our youth a solid foundation for the future. – As you have rightly observed, discipline is the best foundation. [individual or audience] NB. Unless rhetoric questions are carefully used, they can stimulate a negative reaction in your audience. 5. Conclude your speech by urging the audience to consider the facts and to take further action if necessary. e.g. In conclusion ladies and gentlemen, let me say how delighted we all are by this school‟s achievements. As we celebrate our success, let us strive to maintain our record and to reach newer heights of success. Thank you for your attention. 6. Use the right tone through appropriate language structures. e.g Persuasion:  This scheme has been specifically designed for you.  I urge you all to do your best to maintain our school tradition of caring for the less fortunate members of our community.  You have waited anxiously over the last four years for this moment.  Consider the benefits you have reaped by enabling so many girls access education up to the university level.  In the long run, you will find that this was your best choice. Commemoration:  Allow me to congratulate you for celebrating your tenth anniversary. Reproof: It is in your interest to improve your performance because at the end of the day, it‟s your future we are talking about here. I find this flouting of school rules completely unacceptable.

Exercise Write the head teacher‟s Prize Giving Day speech. Using points raised in a group discussion.

NIE Bk 4 pp.93-96 REVIEWS

 A review gives a good idea of what a book is about. It is written in prose form.  In a book reviewing, we include:

 The author  title of the book under review  name of the publisher of the book and when published  the name of the reviewer  the number of pages
 The content of the book i.e what the books is about  The language used and the style of the author  The weaknesses and strengths of the book


Title: The Broken Covenant Author: Kamau Ndirangu Publisher: Benchmark Year:2005 Price:320 Pages:290 Reviewed by Alice Muthoni

This is a story of a broken covenant in which the main character, Mukuri, uproots a sacred tree, contrary to the wishes of old Mutahi. The story is set in Nyeri on the fringes of the Aberdare Ranges. Mukuri, a primary school Headmaster in his stubborn enthusiasm to built new classrooms, cuts down the tree. This he does in spite of numerous warnings from the locals. Soon after completion of the classrooms, a mysterious storm destroys it, leaving a trail of destruction and death.

The author presents us with the question of whether superstitutions are real: whether they have a bearing on our lives. Can we afford to destroy our ancestors? The use of dialogue powerfully brings out this underlying theme. The author does not explain how the freak storm is related to the late Mutahi. Though the story is told with ease, it leaves one with more questions than answers.

Example A.I.E P. 60


 They also called a reference letter.  They take the format of formal letters.  This report requires the writer to comment in confidence or give an assessment of the suitability of someone or something for a given task or activity.  They are expected to mention strengths and weaknesses truthfully.  They are not meant to be read by the public but for the person requesting for them.


Mashamba Flowers, P.O. Box 54766 – 00100, Nairobi. 22nd January, 2013.

The Human Resource Manager, Landscaping Enterprises, P.O. Box 122 – 00200, Nairobi.

Dear Sir,


I have known Mr. Kapule for the last six years. During this time, he worked as a gardener in our flower farm where we grow flowers of all types for export. While working for the company, Mr. Kapule attended short courses both locally and overseas and obtained a diploma in flower growing and landscaping. Mr. Kapule is an innovative person who is quite adventurous. He in fact introduced a number of exotic flowers in the farm, which saw our sales soar. He is hardworking and needs no supervision. I therefore recommend him with full confidence that he will not disappoint you. If you need further information, do not hesitate to write.

Yours sincerely,

Shilingi Sumuni
Personnel Manager


Are used by individuals, institutions and firms to collect information that helps them to determine issues or phenomena like;  Market trends  National examination performance  Changes in attitude  Preferences  Political thought  Community needs  Acceptability of public policy.


  1. provide direction as to what information is to be collected. 2. afford the respondent time to choose their answers
    reach a wider audience within a short time 3. offer systematic analysis 4. minimized the misrepresentation of responses on specific issues 5. are always consulted for clarification 6. document a variety of responses


 Establish the purpose of the questionnaire and the type of data you wish to collect  Questionnaire comprise written questions that are posed to estimate whether and how one set of factors predetermines states, opinions or conclusions  Avoid questionnaires that deviate from the purpose of investigation.  Begin with factual, less demanding and progress towards questions demanding greater detail, opinion or thought.  They may be structured in such a way that respondents simply tick the response they favour.  Other questions in the questionnaire may be framed in such a way as to grade a respondent‟s attitude or feeling towards something.  Keep the questionnaire to an appropriate length. people do not have time to keep on turning pages.  Use a culturally appropriate language and do not patronize the respondent. NB. Show appreciation for the respondents‟ efforts.Also give an idea as to how the results of the questionnaire might be of benefit to them.

NIE Bk 4 pp.134-136 E-MAILS

 Are a form of electronic communications [electronic mail].  Letters can be passed electronically using computers and telephone/ modems. these letters can be formal or informal.  they are faster than postal mails an  can be accessed by the recipient at any location in the world.  e-mail users are charged according to the time taken during transmission.


*Are public places with computers and a telephone line/modem where people can access and send their e-mails.
With the computer on, click the programme to retrieve or end your e-mail. e.g. yahoo, hotmail. Select the Internet Service Provider (ISP) to which you are connected. e.g. nairobinet, gmail, wananchionline.  Type your ID or username and password. the ID serves as one‟s postal address and a password serves as the key to one‟s Postal Box.  Click enter.  Click compose  On the space written „To‟ you type in the e-mail address of the recipient.  If sent to other parties, type in their addresses on the written Cc.  If you do not want others sent the same email to know who else was sent the e-mail, the addresses are written on the spaces written BC [=blind copy].  Type the subject under subheading SUBJECT.  Write your message.  Click the button to send the e-mail in the space provided.  The computer indicates if or not the message has been delivered.

From: CC: BC :

Subject: annual reports

This is to inform you that our annual marketing report is due in the Director‟s office by the end of the month. .I would be grateful if you forward your regional reports to reach my office not later than Wednesday 25th November. Thank you for cooperation.


Peter Wafula Marketing Manager


From: jim Subject: get together

Hi Tamasha It‟s been a long time since I heard from you. I understand you moved house. Where are you staying

now ? Can we meet at java this Saturday to catch up with the latest gossip. Please don‟t let me down. I‟ll be waiting. Bye for now. Jim

NIE Bk 4 p. 137 FAXES

 Are transmitted using a fax machine, telephone/modem  A fax number or telephone number is important not the address.  Fax messages can be typed or handwritten and unlike e-mails, they can bear the signature of the sender. Faxes going through a modem may not bear signatures.  Label pages of the fax message for ease of handling  When the message goes through, the sender is informed and she/he can try again.

Write a fax to your friend requesting for a revision book that she had borrowed from you. MAXMILLA FOOT WEAR P.O BOX 312-90100 MACHAKOS

    17TH JULY 2012 UFUNDI INDUSTRIES P.O BOX 3007- 00200 NAIROBI TEL: 254-020-5869744    Dear Madam 


Kindly send us through the quickest service mail you latest catalogue of ladies‟ footwear and hand bags.

Thank you.

Yours faithfully
sign Monica Munyao Proprietor


-It is an important tool in marketing your personal and professional competence. -It should briefly and cohesively say who you are and what you can do. It is a document that grows through the years with each added achievement. – A C.V has 1. Bio data i.e information concerning yourself. It should include your name, sex, marital status, date of birth, residential and business address and mobile / telephone number. 2. Educational background – This indicates academic certification and the date institutions from which you obtained them. The latest qualifications are written first up to the last in a descending order. 3. Professional qualification These are career – related qualifications. The latest qualifications are written first. 4. Work experience

  1. Referees are people well known to you , either at school, college or at the work place.
  2. Publication are published materials a person, has written. They should be relevant to the job one is applying for or the course one wants to pursue. 7. Hobbies -What you do during leisure time. 8. Affiliations are organizing that the applicant is involved in. Example CURRICULUM VITAE BIO DATA Surname: KUTOL Middle Name: KIPROTICH First Name: Franklin Date of Birth: 4th January 1991 Marital status: Single 50
    Nationality: Kenyan Address: P.O.Box 3264- Kirenga Mobile Number: 0753-269808 Business Address (if different): St. Teresa‟s School P.O.Box 412 Kirenga


Dates: Institution Certificate 1995 – 1998 Tito‟s Secondary School KCSE Certificate 1987-1994 NAPETET Primary School KCPE certificate


Dates Institution Certificate

April Njoro Boys Certificate in Gender Studies January – Nov 2003 KISE Diploma in special education 1999 – 2002 University of Nairobi B.Ed Degree


Date Institution Responsibility

January 2004 to Date St. Katherine Lodwar school Head of English Department


Member of the panel for girls‟education in Turkana. Choir member: Napetet Christian church


Br. Edwin Benjamin Principal St. Catherine secondary school P.O.Box 72-30500 Lodwar

Prof. Michael Mwangangi Department of English University of Nairobi P.O Box 265-50600

NIE Bk 4 pp. 209-214 BIOGRAPHY

  • A biography is a story about a life of a person written by someone else. – A biographer is a person who writes a book about someone else‟s life. – Writing a biography is like writing a novel. in many ways, it involves writing about a major character, and many other characters that that character has interacted with. to write a good biography you must know a lot about your subject‟s entire life and that of characters who are close to the subject. – To gather that information, carry out some research on the subject by interviewing him/her. The subject must be willing to give all details about himself/herself. – You might need to interview their close relatives, friends, colleagues, workmates to get a correct perspective of his/her life. – If you hope to get specific information, you must phrase the questions clearly and precisely. A biographer strives to bring to life the most significant moments of the subject, not in isolation but as an integral part of the community.
  • When interviewing your subject:  be friendly  spend time with the subject  be creative in setting up your interview so that it doesn‟t seem too formal  give your subject all your attention  make a list of questions you would like to ask  do prior research to enable you to have background information to enhance your interview and interpret answers to questions set  be tactical especially when asking probing or difficult questions.  listen. Do not talk too much. Let your subject give the information.  do not be afraid to ask dumb questions  ask about other people  note facts, especially dates and ensure they are correct  thank the subject – NB. Divide the life of your subject into phases and set questions on each section. e.g  early childhood  pre-teens  teens  young adulthood  early adulthood  middle age  old age example Early Childhood  Early memories of parents, home and siblings.
     Most memorable incidents involving the subject and other family members.  The subject‟s greatest fear  Attitude towards childhood and reasons for it.  Accidents or illness that may have affected or influenced their life.  General impressions about festivities like Christmas.

 Gather information from the institutions where the subject studied, the places where they worked and even from the hospitals and clubs which they attended.  Read newspapers and magazines on stories about your subject and see what they said.  A Curriculum Vitae can tell a lot about a person‟s profession and achievements.  Identify and understand the most interesting or the most important things about your subject. Know about their achievements, normal behavior, strengths, weaknesses and idiosyncrasies.  Authors write biographies of people who excelled in certain aspects of life or people who have made an impact in their families, communities or the world. A biography is vivid, detailed and descriptive.  Sometimes writing the biography of a famous person like a great scientist, actor or president has to be authorized. Therefore, what the authorized biography captures should be the officially acceptable version of what the subject is to have done.  Research on the historical period during which the person lived and worked.  Make sure your facts can be found in at least three different sources. Where there is a disagreement between sources, state that there exists a conflict.  Be as accurate as possible.  Write in a clear and convincing way, because if you don‟t believe what you are writing, your readers won‟t either. Be sure to tell a good story that will keep your readers interested.

 After collecting the information, compile it into an interesting story that takes into account:

 social economic conditions.  physical environment; described in vivid details.  political life; changes taking place at any given time. How they impact not only on the subject but also on the community as a whole and in particular how the subject responded to them.  religious set up- trends in religious development.

Aims at appealing to the reader‟s intellect .One should ensure that whatever is explained is understood.
TYPES OF EXPOSITORY WRITING The informational process Here, the writer informs us about how something is done or how something operates.
The instructional process- the writer gives directions or instructions on how to do something. – Expository essays are developed through: Narration – is the presentation of events or information in a sequential order. Analysis- breaks the subject step by step into separate procedures and actions. Description – you give a picture of what you are writing about. Definition – any technical terms or stages of the process. The definition could be a sentence to bring out meaning, a paraphrase or a restatement of a previous point. – Use the present simple tense. It is used in the passive voice to describe an operation or a process. Exercise

  1. You have given your bicycle to your sister. However, she does not know how to ride. Explain how it works and the purpose for giving it to her. 2. Explain how to milk a cow using either a machine or hands. 3. A friend intends to visit you over the holidays. Explain to her/him how to get to your home from the nearest shopping centre. 4. Explain how to prepare a tree nursery and why it is necessary to prepare one. 5. Your pen- friend is coming to visit you from overseas. This is her/his first visit to Kenya and you want to explain a few things about your town and family. Write an essay on how the town looks like and about your family.


Instructions can be acceptable in letter form. However, it is easier to follow instructions written in point form. When giving instructions, give adequate information to enable the person to undertake the assignment. E.g Please switch of the lights if you are the last person to leave the living room. Juma, I have just dashed to the shops. Please watch the stew. You need to add onions and tomatoes after five minutes. You will find them already chopped on the cutting board near the sink. I will be back soon.


An imaginative composition tells a story. It may give an account of an event or an occurrence.

Plot- every story has a plot. To have a plot, put a character in trouble (create a conflict). The rest of the story explains how the character gets out of the difficult situation.

Beginning of a story- the beginning should be catchy. It will get the readers‟ attention and encourage him or her to read on. It should set the scene, introduce the characters and set the mood. e.g You can begin an imaginative composition by using direct speech. e.g “Everybody lie down!” the huge hooded gun-wielding gang leader roared, “if you behave yourselves, nobody will get hurt.”

Finishing – the ending should create a feeling of completeness. try to create suspense in your story.

Use of dialogue – a good story combines dialogue with narration. The dialogue should be properly punctuated. Ensure that you:  make the characters talk naturally.  start a new paragraph each time a different character speaks.  use short descriptions to enliven the story. Describe people and places.


  • Let your mind start thinking about creative writing (get inspired). – Know the purpose of writing. Most creative compositions entertain, describe and explain. – Make an outline and organize your ideas in a logical order.
  1. Write a story on a young boy, a dog and a hare. 2. Write a composition beginning: he heard somebody whisper his name and turned… 3. Write a story beginning with: I walked towards the door and cautiously opened it, there she

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