1. It is a parents’ day in your school. You intend to invite your parents who have never been there. Write clear directions from your home to school.
  2. Describe an embarrassing or amusing incident involving either yourself or someone else.
  3. Write a story using ONE of the sentences given below as your opening sentence.


  1. Mr. Wafula made up his mind. “I shall definitely go and talk to the manager tomorrow”, he told his wife


  • At last John decided that he had no alternative but to seek an interview with Mr. Openda.
  • Discuss the ways used to control population growth in Kenya.




  • General aspects to look for:
  • This paper tests linguistic ability
  • Note the following when marking:
  • Relevance in one’s content
  • Sentence connections i.e. ideas must flow smoothly from one sentence to another
  • Word connections within a given sentence
  • Correct paragraphing: Paragraphs should not be too long or too short (i.e. one line paragraph unless the situation is the requirement)
  • Change of tenses anyhow. The tenses should be in line with the time one is talking about.
  • The use of compound words – some are written as one word and others separated (some students do confuse them)
  • Check on spelling mistakes
  • Credit proper use of idioms – but a student should not over use them.

Question 1

Giving directions:

  • Should be clear and vivid
  • Saying that he walked / or just move on and on) is quite vague. One can use place names e.g. after reaching Eldoret etc. or can use compass directions to direct.
  • When its in a letter form, only pay attention to how she / he gives directions.
  • Directions must be from where the parents stay to school and not vice versa
  • Must include in the directions the purpose of writing i.e. parents day.

Question 2

  • The situation being described must have something amusing i.e. social / relationship etc.
  • Start from normal situation and turn slowly into a funny one
  • Students should not talk about storage situations e.g. one swallowing spoons etc.
  • Exaggerations are allowed but should not be overdone.

Question 3

  • Stories must begin with the given sentences
  • In both, one must show why the characters have taken the last alternative
  • Penalize constructions – This should not include creativity
  • Credit use of suspense
  • Penalize vague constructions.

Questions 4

  • The composition must be a discursive one
  • Penalize situations where students simply list points e.g. “One way of controlling population growth in Kenya is family planning” or “Another thing / way ………………” etc


Relevance        5

Content           5

Language        10

18 – 20 – No mistakes

15 – 17 – Very good almost no mistakes

12 – 14 – Good / few mistakes

10 – 11 – Fair / a few mistakes

7 – 9 – Good but with mistakes

5 – 6 – Readable but with mistakes

0 – 4 – Quite jumbled up.




Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Namanga the border town between Kenya and Tanzania is about 250Km in the South Easterly direction of Nairobi.

It is a town, whose tale of two worlds, has been told but most pronounced tale yet, is that of the marked difference that one notices in the peoples of what used to be one vast country inhabited by the graceful Maasai of East Africa, now divided into two countries – Kenya and Tanzania – by some decree of the Colonial legacy.

There are so many similarities in the type of shops, police, immigration, customs and Post Office buildings on either side of the borders.

There are also young morans taking a stroll on the one stretch towns, not forgetting the photogenic occasional ones starting on one foot planted on the upright leg at the knee joint. There are also the women a wash in red selling all types of curios.

But that is as far as the similarities go. And indeed a visit to Tanzania is likely to show that the two countries are so far a part in mannerisms that leaves Nairobians aghast at the sheer lack of pace in Tanzania.

On the Kenyan side, Makangas (Matatu touts) will be shouting at the top of their voices trying to lure passengers to the Matatus that ply the route to Nairobi.

Money changers will literally give one a headache as  more of them crowd around individual potential customers trying to outdo each other in selling their services. “Oh come brother I will give you the best rates – leave that guy alone he is a con man”, says one, as another roughly shoves him out of the way and rapidly declares that dollars have “gone up today and you can also get Tsh at 11.50 for one Ksh.

The story goes that there are thieves and con men in their midst and hence the jostling to confuse the potential victims. It however occurs to me that they will always be in existence as hotel charges are rather arbitrary and exorbitant.

As you enter the immigration and customs offices on the Kenyan side, faces of tired officials welcome you – sorry they cant be welcoming when the men in wrinkled jackets and mismatched ties and shirts scowl at every traveller without even a bare.

Yes, where are you going? What for and for how long? Can you fill a form like this, he says lifting a filled entry declaration form ………. Oh we do not have any today just fill in that book!

The wooden building housing the Kenyan Immigration offices has a sign that says photography is prohibited , I wonder what that is in aid of after all the building is so dull, weather beaten and boring, not many would waste their film on a shot of it.

After stamping here and there, One heads to the no man’s land amidst a din from the raucus money men. On the other side there are milling on-lookers waiting to welcome travellers to Namanga, the Tanzania side but their behaviour is marked by different.

They defer to the visitors, are cautious and in the event of harassment they rebuke their own for whatever conduct they consider unbecoming.


  1. Using not more than 70 words, describe the sameness that exists between Kenya and Tanzania.                                                                                                                                        (11mks)

       Rough draft

       Fair copy

  • Make notes on what makes Kenya different from Tanzania.                                           (4mks)
  • In point form, state why the Tanzania side is better.                                                        (5mks)


Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:-


I still remember – my hands and my finger – tips still remember; what used to lie in store for us on our return to school from the holidays. The guava trees in the school yard would be in full leaf again, and the old leaves would be strewn around in scattered heaps. In places there were even more than just heaps of them: it would be a muddy sea of leaves.

“Get all that swept! The headmaster would tell us. “I want the whole place cleaned up, at once!”

“At once!” There was enough work there. Damned hard work, too to last us for over a week. Especially since the only tools with which we were provided were our hands, our fingers, our nails.

“Now see that it’s done properly, and be quick about it, “the headmaster would say to the older pupils, “or you’ll have to answer for it”.

So at an order from the older boys, we would  all line up like peasants about to reap or clean a field, and we would set to work like members of chain-gang. In the school yard itself, it wasn’t too bad: the guava trees were fairly well spaced; but there was one part where the closely planted trees grew in a hopeless tangle of leaves and branches, The sun could not penetrate here, and the acrid stench of decay linger in the undergrowth even at the height of the summer.

If the work was not going as quickly as the headmaster expected, the big boys instead of giving us a helping hand, used to find it simpler to whip us with branches pulled from the trees. Now guava wood is regrettably flexible; skillfully handled, the springly switched used to whistle piercingly, and fall like flails of fire on our backsides. Our flesh stung and smarted, while tears of anguish sprang from our eyes and splashed on the rotting leaves at out feet.

In order to avoid these blows, we used to bribe our tyrants with the succulent cakes of Indian Corn, the conscious made of meat or fish which we used to bring for our daily midday meal. And if we happened to have any money on us, the coins changed hands at once. If we did not do this, if we were afraid of going home with an empty stomach or an empty purse, the blows would be redoubles. They were administered with such furious generosity and with such diabolical gusto that even a deaf man would have gathered that we were being flogged not so much to spur us on to work, but rather to lash us into a state of submissiveness in which we would be only too glad to give up our food and money.

Occasionally, one of us, worn out by such calculated cruelty would have the courage to complain to the headmaster. He would of course be very angry, but the punishment he inflicted on the older boys was always negligible – nothing compared to what they had done to us. And the fact is that however much we complained our situation did not improve in the slightest. Perhaps we should have let our parents know what was going on, but somehow we never dreamed of doing so; I don’t know whether it was loyalty or pride that kept us silent, but I can see now that we were foolish to keep quiet, for such beatings were utterly foreign to our nature, and completely at variance with our passion for independence and equality.


  1. Why was the school yard in a very untidy conditions?                                                    (2mks)
  2. How did the Headmaster make sure that the work was done properly.                          (2mks)
  3. Why was it pointless to complain to the Headmaster about the bullying.                        (2mks)
  4. How did the boys avoid blows from the bullies.                                                              (3mks)
  5. Why didn’t the younger boys complain to their parents about the bullying.                   (3mks)
  6. Who do you think was most to blame for the bullying.                                                   (2mks)
  7. If you were one of the young boys, what would you have done.                                                (2mks)
  8. Define the following words as used in the passage.
  9. Negligible
  10. Strewn
  11. Splashed
  12. Anguish



  1. Complete the following sentences below using the suitable form of the verb in brackets in their past perfect form.
  2. After Jane ………………….(pick) all the coffee, she took it to the factory.
  3. The boy ……………………. (spend) all the money by the time his father ………… (arrive)
  4. John ………………….. (complete) his homework when the bell ………………….. (ring)
  • Punctuate the following sentences correctly.
  • I don’t know how to swim he explained
  • masiga says here is a game this morning.
  • we have found it the student exclaimed.
  • Each of the following sentences has a mistake, Rewrite it correctly.
  • Alice is more prettier than her sister.
  • This is the most wealthiest man I have ever seen.
  • peter gave me a rounder ring
  • Her watch is best than mine.
  • Ngugi is the fast the three male sprinters.
  • Write out the sentences below, filling in the blanks with most appropriate verb from the ones given below, using the past continuos form. (check, bake, carry, walk, smile, hope)
  • Mr. John ………………….. along the road
  • My sister …………………. A cake
  • The policeman ……………….. all the Matatus
  • Matatus ……………………… a lot of people
  • Everybody ……………………. To win the first prize.
  • Fill in the blank spaces in the following sentences using either a/an or the where necessary.
  • Miss Judith is ………………….. secondary school teacher
  • James was ……………………… best swimmer in the world
  • She knows how to play ………………….. football
  • He wants to climb ……………………… Ruwenzori mountains
  • ……………………………. Rich are always the losers
  • Fill in the blank spaces below using the most suitable word from the following list, (beside, besides, since from, for)
  • He was standing just …………………………. Me
  • He has been ill ………………………………… last Friday
  • We study French ………………………… English
  • He has lived here ……………………… two years
  • In the following sentences explain how the meaning of A differs from the meaning of B and C.
  • I am in Kampala for two weeks
  • I was in Kampala for two weeks
  • I have been in Kampala for two weeks.
  • Study the following sentences then make the second one mean the same as the first by putting one word in the empty space. The word you to put is formed from the underlined word in the first sentence.

1.  (a) all those who were late were requested to be punctual in future.

  • All the ……………………. Were requested to be punctual.

2.  (a) I think the water made me sick because it was not pure.

  • I Think the ……………………… of the water made me sick 





  1. Kenya and Tanzania are the same in the type of shops, police, immigration, customs and Post Office buildings. There are also young morans taking a stroll on the same stretch towns. Some photogenic ones occasionally start on one foot planted on the upright leg at the knee joint and there are also women awash in red selling all types of curios.                                          (11mks)
  3. Makangas / Matatu touts shout at the top of their voices to lure passengers.
  4. Money changers literally give one a headache
  5.  At the immigration and customs offices the officials are unwelcoming.                  (4mks)
  • There are milling onlookers waiting to welcome travellers to Namanga.
  • They defer to the visitors / respect visitors.
  • They are cautions
  •  In the event of harassment, the onlookers rebuke their own for whatever conduct they consider unbecoming.                                                                                                    (5mks)


  1. The school yard was in very untidy conditions because the older leaves had strewn around since there was no one to collect them / The boys had gone on holiday.                          (2mks)
  2. The headmaster ensured that the work was done by leaving it under the supervision of the older boys who in turn would be answerable in case it was not done.                                          (2mks)
  3. It was pointless to complain to the headmaster because the punishment he inflicted on the boys was always negligible – not compared to what they had done. The situation never improved.                                                                                                                                                    (2mks)
  4. They avoided blows from the bullies by bribing them with succulent cakes couscous made of fish or meat and also with money.                                                                                (3mks)
  5. The boys didn’t complain to their parents because they never thought of it and also due to loyalty or pride (They were ignorant)                                                                                 (3mks)
  6. The headmaster was most to blame because he used the older boys to ensure work was done and also when reported to the punishment he gave was negligible.                                             (2mks)
  • Open question
  • Expect
  • Report to parents
  • Stop schooling
  • Work hard                                                                                                                      (2mks)

8. (a) Negligible – lightly / not much compared to what they had done

  • Strewn – scattered irregularly
  • Splashed – dropped
  • Anguish – sorrow / pain                                                                                                (4mks)


A i.    After Jane had picked all the coffee, she took it to the factory.

  1. The boy had spent all the money by the time his father arrived.
  2. John had completed his homework when the bell rang.

B i. “ I don’t know how to swim,” he explained.

  1. Masiga says, “There is a game this morning”.
  2. “We have found it! “The students exclaimed.

C i.   Alice is prettier than her sister or Alice is more pretty than her sister

  1. This is the wealthiest man I have ever seen.
  2. Peter gave me a round ring
  3. Her watch is better than mine
  4. Ngugi is the fastest of the three male sprinters.

D i.   Mr. John was walking along the road.

  1. My sister was baking a cake
  2. The policeman was checking all the Matatus.
  3. Matatus were carrying a lot of people
  4. Everybody was hoping to win the first prize.

E 1.    a

  • the
  • ____
  • the
  • the

F 1. Beside      2. Since

  • Besides   4. For

G (A) He is still in Kampala now

  • He once stayed there but the time he left is not known
  • He has just left Kampala / some moments back. It may also mean that he is still in Kampala where he has stayed for two weeks.

H 1. All the late comers were requested to be punctual

  • I think the impurity of the water made me sick.




Q1. Read the following poem and answer the questions which follow.

The Brewing Night

It was that moment night when I heard it,

Yes, I heard it all.

That night sleep deserted me;

So I lay awake, sleep in all my senses.

It was long past midnight.

Time dragged on, the clock couldn’t chime / tick

The dog wouldn’t bark, nor the baby cry;

It was a moonless and windless night;

The whole universe seemed to stagnate

In dark, dreary, dead slumber.

What was amiss? I knew not.

The dead quietness and solitude

Seemed to be eternal – but

Waves of babbling and muttering

Began to trickle through the street;

the air;

Humed footsteps echoed through the street

What was amiss? I knew not.

I pulled my curtain to see,

And then I saw it all

Heavy boots, thick uniforms and solid helmets

Dimly discernible under the pale street lamp

The atmosphere stood stiff and solid with

Brawny-faced and clenched – teeth determination

Thus the cauldron had boiled that sleepless night

The night had pulsed with passions high and wild;

The streets were stained with new portraits framed;

The wheel changed hands and new plans were filed.

The morning saw the country strangely dressed

And every one attended the rally

To hear the eloquence from a strange face,

And everyone quietly nodded and said, ‘yes’.


  1. The night was unusual as explained in stanza one and two.

      Identify three things that explain this night.                                                                    (3mks)

  • Explain the meaning of the following phrases as used in the poem:
  • In dark, dreary, dears slumber.                                                                                   (1mk)
  • Waves of babbling and muttering.                                                                              (1mk)
  • Heavy boots, thick uniforms and solid Helmets                                                         (1mk)
  • How appropriate is the tittle of the poem?                                                                       (2mks)
  • From this poem Identify three figures of speech or elements of style and show how effective they are.
  • Comment on the mood depicted in the poem.                                                                 (2mks)
  • What is the significance of the last stanza.                                                                       (4mks)


Read the Oral narrative below and then answer the questions that follow:

The Hyena and The Hare

Once upon a time the Hare and the Hyena were very good friends. They visited each other every day and herded their cows together.

There came a time when the cows started dying one after the other. The two friends wanted to find out why the cows were dying. The Hare said: ‘Let us go and kill our mothers and take out their livers. We shall then cook and taste these livers. The bitter liver will show whose mother was making the cows die.

At once the Hyena went and killed his mother. He took out the liver and cooked it. The Hare went and hid his mother in the garden in the bushy banana trees. He then went and killed an antelope, took out its liver and cooked it.

The two friends met to eat their livers. ‘My liver is very bitter, ‘said the Hyena. ‘Mine is very sweet, ‘the Hare said. ‘So it was your mother who was making our cows die’. The Hyena kept quiet and went home feeling sad. He moved from the old house to a small one because now he had no mother. The Hare did the same.

After a short time, there was great famine in the land. The two friends decided that each of them was to look for food, on alternative days sharing on an equal basis what was available. When it was brought, the Hare refused to eat because he had secretly gone to his mother who had given him some bananas. This went on for many days and the and the Hyena grew thinner and thinner. Then he started wondering: ‘How does my friend remain fat and he doesn’t eat anything. I will find out’.

One day he followed the Hare. The Hare went to his mother as usual. ‘Mother, mother, I have come’ and the mother dropped some bananas which the Hare ate quickly. He then looked for some honeycombs and took them to his friend. This is all I could find my friend’. The Hyena kept quiet. The next day he went to the banana tree and called. His voice however was very deep and no banana were dropped for him.

There was an Old Hyena who was staying at the end of the forest and used to give advice to people. So Hare’s friend went to her and told her his problem. ‘Go and put your tongue on the path of black ants, he was told. ’Let them bite your tongue until it hurts, That’s how your voice will be soft.’

The Hyena went and did as he was told. ‘When he went to the Hare’s mother his voice was soft as the Hare’s Mother, mother I have come. ‘And Hare’s mother dropped bananas for him. Then he told her to come and greet him. When he came down and saw it was Hyena she screamed but there was nobody near to help. The Hyena killed her immediately.

The Hyena went and met the Hare as usual saying nothing about the Hare’s mother. The following day it was the Hare’s turn. He went to his usual place. ‘Mother, mother, I have come, but this time no bananas came. ‘Mother’ he called again. He climbed up. There was nobody. Having seen some blood on the ground, the Hare knew what had happened to his mother.

When the Hare got back to the Hyena’s house, he said nothing. At night, the Hare took all the cows including Hyena’s and went away to live in another part of the country. That ended the Hare’s and Hyena’s friendship. (Taken from a Girl who could not keep quiet by Rose Mwangi)

  1. Identify any four features in this story that are characteristic of Oral narratives.           (4mks)
  2. Try to picture yourself as the story-teller charged with the responsibility of narrating this particular story. What story-telling devices you employ?                                       (6mks)
  3. Compare and contrast the two major characters in this story.                                          (6mks)
  4. Give a proverb from your community illustrating the moral lesson from this story.        (4mks)




1.    POETRY

       The three things

1.      i   The persona couldn’t sleep / was alert throughout the night

  1. Time couldn’t move / dragged
  2. It was very quiet / silent / unusually silent.                                                                                  (3mks)
  • Meaning of phrases:
  • The silent night was scaring / frightening
  • He saw soldiers / army men / armored men.
  • He heard people talking
  • The title is appropriate because it talks about the change over of power / change in the making and materialize – govt. change.                                                                                        Any 2 marks
  • Stylistic devices:
  • Imagery – ‘sleep deserted me’ it shows vividly or visualize how awake the persona was.
  • Hyperbole / exaggeration – ‘the whole universe seemed to stagnate’ it shows the extend of silence or quietness.
  • Personification – “a distant roaring of heavy trucks” The atmosphere stood still”. It brings out the reality of the false movement.
  • Alliteration – …….. dark dreary dead ………” it emphasizes the anxiety of the persona during the silent night.

Metaphor e.g. “Streets were stained with new portraits framed” they vividly describe the change of government.

  • Repetition – “What was a miss” shows the anxiety …………………..                     (6mks)
  • Mood
  • Tense
  • Anxiety
  • Excitement           Any one (Double tick)                                                                                                         (2mks)
  • Significance of the last stanza.
  • It shows the culmination of the people’s expectations / change of our government / change over ceremony or celebration and people’s  satisfaction or acceptance of the change.             (4mks)
  1. Four features characteristics of Oral narratives:
  2. Opening formula – “Once upon a time………………….”
  3. Closing / enclosing formula – “That ended ………………”
  4. Use of animal characters – “Hare and Hyena”
  5. Moral lesson – Hyena and Hare – friendship should be genuine                                 (4mks)
  • Delivery styles
  • Facial expressions – showing the sadness of Hyena or bitterness of Hyena on eating the liver.
  • Gesture / gesticulation – demonstrating how the hyena was
  • Tone variation / change of voice – for Hyena / Hare e.g. screaming of Hare’s mother
  • Mimicry – Mine or mimic their actions.                       Any three – 6marks
  • Contrast
  • Hare is cunning / tricky – he tricks Hyena to kill his mother while Hyena is gullible – easily accepts the lie.
  • Hare is untrustworthy – cheats Hyena to kill his mother while Hyena is trusting – goes ahead to kill his mother.
  • Hyena is foolish – e.g. accepts to kill his mother while Hare is clever e.g. he hid his mother and didn’t kill her.


  1. Both are revengeful e.g. Hyena kills Hare’s mother and Hare takes away the cows including the Hyena’s. Accept any one comparison point and one contrast point.                                   (6mks)

Accept any relevant proverb from African languages which is translated. Do not accept pure English Proverb.

Examples of proverbs

“ Kikulacho ki nguoni mwako. (Kiswahili)

“It is your friend who betrays / hurts you (English)

Illust. Hare betrays Hyena his friend by making him kill his mother. Resolution: In the end they both lose mothers.

Moral lesson: Keep a friend you can trust / friendship should be truthful                             (4mks)



  1. Compulsory.

Imagine that you are the secretary of the prefects association in your school for the past four weeks, the headteacher has noticed an increase in noise making in the school.  You have been requested to investigate the causes of this.

Assuming that you have completed your investigation, write the report.

  • Choose only one topic from the following.

Write a story illustrating one of the following sayings:

  1. It is an ill bird that fouls its own nest
  2. All’s well that ends well.
  3. Describe your ideal school.
  4. “Were it not for science man would still be living in caves.” Discuss.




  1. Format                   6  mks

Grammar               6  mks

Relevance              4  mks

Vocabulary            4  mks

                              20 mks

  • It must a story and in past tense.  If not, deduct 2 marks.  If the student has not written a story based on the saying deduct upto 5 marks.

Grammar               6  mks

Vocabulary            5  mks

Relevance              5  mks

Fluency                 4  mks

                              20 mks

  • Grammar               6 mks

Vivid description  6 mks

Relevance              4 mks

Fluency                 2 mks

Vocabulary            2 mks

                              20 mks

  • Expect points both for and against.  If not mark out of 10 marks.  The conclusion should show the side the student takes.  If not deduct 2 marks.

Grammar               4 mks

Relevance              3 mks

Points for              4 mks

Points against        4 mks

Fluency of points  3 mks

Conclusion            2 mks

                              20 mks



  1. Read the following passage and then answer the questions below.

Teacher:     What do you think are the functions of newspapers in modern society John, do

you have any ideas?

John:         The most obvious function of a newspaper is to inform.  We should be able to learn, not only what is happening in our own country but also about events all over the world.

     Teacher:      Mary, how important is this

      Mary:         Very, especially today, when an event occurring in one corner of the earth can

                        affect everybody else in the world in a very short time.

      Teacher:     William ?

      William:     Yes, that is right.  Since the world has grown so small, important events affect

                        everyone.  All the methods of mass communication should try to keep us

                        informed in an unbiased way.

      Teacher:     Jane, why do you think he says in an unbiased way

      Jane:          I suppose he means that people in communist countries for example, are only

                        given the information their governments want them to have people should be

                        allowed to make up their own minds about things.

      William:     Yes, but this is true of non- communist countries as well.  Newspapers should be

                        allowed complete freedom to inform the people about world – events and not just

                        world events, but events at home as well.

      Teacher:     Anne, do newspapers have any other functions.

      Anne:        I think they should and do entertain as well.  You have crosswords, quizzes,

                        cartoons, horoscopes.  Some American papers have five or six pages devoted to

                        cartoons and that sort of thing.

      Tom:          I am not sure that everyone would call horoscopes entertainment.

      Teacher:     Why is that, Tom?

      Tom:          Well, a great many people take their horoscopes seriously.  I would think that those people would treat horoscopes as serious information.

      Jane:          Although I agree with everything that has been said, I think we missed a vry important point.  I think, especially in developing countries, newspapers should be used to educate people.

      Teacher:     Can you tell us what you mean, Jane

      Jane:          Well, a lot of people don’t have radios or television, so much of what they learn will be through reading newspapers.  Newspapers should help to educate them about things the government is trying to do, about improvements in agriculture or light industry, and especially about how individuals can help in the development of the country.  So I think newspapers should educate and inform at the same time.


  1. a)  In not more than 60 words, explain how newspapers can assist the governments to do their

            jobs well.                                                                                                                     15mks

      Rough Draft.

      Fair Copy.

b)   What are the functions of newspapers mentioned in the passage?                                  5mks

  • A)  Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

When he turned the last corner, he met a man.

‘Oh, a dead man,’ said Shepherd, answering my astonished look.  ‘He was stanching on guard before the breach in the ice-wall; leaning back against one side of it, frozen there for ever?

‘Was he an Eskimo? ‘ I asked.  It was the first time I had interrupted.

‘No, not an Eskimo.  Very different, facially.  He was small and dark.  And naked.

‘Naked? In that cold?’

‘This man did not need clothes…….. Have you ever seen an armadillo?’


Well, the small man had been like an armadillo; his skin was scaly, but perfectly armoured and jointed.  He seemed to have been frozen, not by death but by horror or amazement; his eyes were narrowed, and his hand was up to protect them – as if he had seen some hideous burst of light on the far horizon.  Shepherd had the clear impression that he had walked out of the breach in the wall, and straight into a shock wave which, baulked by a mountain, could strike a man dead.

Or it might have been, he though, some kind of selective weapon which took care of human beings, and also took care – in another sense – of their property.  At any rate, the scaly man was dead, and the ice – castle he guarded was intact.

Shepherd, whose nerves had been toughened by solitude, edged past the dead man and moved inside.  He found himself in a small rock chamber which must have served as a kind of guardroom, for there were the scaly mans companions – Six of them, seated on a bench at a long table, frozen in the same bizzare way.  They sat in graded altitudes of wakefulness, ranging from the man nearest the door, whose fists were on the table as if he had been rising in alarm, to the man farthest away, his head still sleepily sunk in his hands.  Even the faces they showed were carefully graduated;  the nearestman was full-face, the last man in profile.  It must all have happened in a few seconds of time.  The man standing at the doorway, perhaps, had been the most alert of this unearthly crew.

It was not dark inside, though the guardroom was windowless; as shepherd moved, something – probably his body heat – triggered an eerie glow from the floor, which was of some opaque material like roughened fibre-glass.  The same thing happened when he walked past the dead guards, and into the room beyond.  But the room beyond was truly fantastic.

He found himself inside a vast hollow mountain of ice rock, an arched cathedral literally miles long.  It was clear, immediately, what the place was; a huge refrigerator crammed with food.

                                                ( From the Time Before this by

                                                            Nicholas Monsarrat)


  1. Why does Shepherd think the dead man was staring at?                                           2mks
  2. Why do you think Shepherd calls the small rock chamber a guardroom?                  2mks
  3. What does he mean by “they sat in graded attitudes of wakefulness” ?                   2mks
  4. Why is the deadman compared to an armadillo?                                                        2mks
  5. What does the author mean by ‘ and also took care – in another sense of their property’?                                                                                                                                       2mks
  • Give the meanings of the following words as used in the passage.                           5mks
  • Armoured
  • Hideous
  • Solitude
  • Graduated
  • crammed.

2. B)  Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

      It is popular fallacy that all man – eaters are old and mangy, the mange being attributed to the excess of salt in human flesh.  I am not competent to give any opinion on the relative quantity of salt in human or animal flesh; but I can, and do, assert that a diet of human flesh so far from having an injurious effect on the coat of man – eaters, has quite the opposite effect, for all the man – eaters I have seen had remarkably fine coats.

      Another popular belief in connection with man – eaters is that the cubs of these animals automatically become man – eaters.  This is quite a reasonable supposition; but it is not borne out by actual facts, and the reason why the cubs of a man – eater do not themselves become man-eaters, is that human beings are not the natural prey of tigers, or of leopards.

      A cub will eat whatever its mother provides, and I have even known of tiger cubs assisting their mothers to kill human beings; but I do not know of a single instance of a cub, after it had left the protection of its parent or after that parent had been killed, taking to kill human beings.

      In the case of human beings killed by carnivore, the doubt is often expressed as to whether the animal responsible for the kill is a tiger or a leopard.  As a general rule –to which I have seen no exception – leopards are responsible for all kills that take place in the dark.  Both animals are semi – nocturnal forest – dwellers having much the same habits, employ similar methods of killing, and both are capable of carrying their human victims for long distances.  It would be natural, therefore, to expect them to hunt at the same hours; and that they do not do so is due to the difference in courage of the two animals.  When a tiger becomes a man – eater it loses all fear of human beings and, as human beings move about more freely in the day than they do at night, it is able to secure its victims during daylight hours and there is no necessity for it to visit their habitations at night.  A leopard, on the other hand, even after it has killed scores of human beings, never loses its fear of man; and as it is unwilling to face up to human beings in daylight, it secures its victims when they are moving about at night.  Owing to these characteristics of the two animals, namely, that one loses its fear of human beings and kills in the daylight, while the other retains its fear and kills in the dark, man – eating tigers are easier to shoot than man-eating leopards.

                                          ( From:  The Man – eaters of Kumaon by

                                                      Jim  Corbett)


  1. What is the meaning of the statement ‘Both animals are semi – nocturnal forest dwellers’?                                                                                                                        2mks
  2. What is the main aim of the first paragraph?                                                              2mks
  3. What new idea is introduced in the second and third paragraphs?                            2mks
  4. The phrase, ‘This is a reasonable supposition’ could mean,                                        1 mk
  5. Compare and contrast man – eating tigers to leopards as brought out in the fourth paragraph.                                                                                                                                3mks

a)  Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions, given.  Do not alter the

meaning.                                                                                                                     5mks

  1. It is certain that the criminal has gone out of the country.  (Begin:  No doubt……)
  2. Nearly all the boys walk to school although some come on bus.  (Rewrite without suing ‘some’)
  3. You did not come to school last week, and that was wrong.  (Begin:  You ought..)
  4. The employee and his boss have not come for the annual Celebrations.  (Begin:  Neither……)
  5. “I might have bought the books by the time you come back, “James said., “ but don’t count on that”.

b)   Rewrite the following sentences in passive voice.

      i)         I shall get further information.                                                                        5mks

  1. Nobody has made any mistakes.
  2. Sell the books at a discount.
  3. I will have bought you the shoes.
  4. Jack made up the story he told us yesterday.

      c)   Replace the underlined words with an appropriate phrasal verb.                       6mks

  1. It is amazing how the boy was cheated by the thief.
  2. I cannot understand what the story is all about.
  3. Due to the inability of the Bank to recover that money, it has been declared a complete loss.
  4. He is very easily excited by hip hop music
  5. I will never submit to their demands.
  6. The presidential jet landed at the airport at noon.

     d)   Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a correct preposition.               5mks

  1. June is a person……………. very sober habits.
  2. We were met by an officer …………… uniform.
  3. Peter seems to have a way …………. Women
  4. I don’t know the number of people invited ………
  5. If you come to our school, do look me …………….

    e)  Use the correct form of the word in brackets to complete the following sentences.5mks

  1. But for the …….…….. (donate)  generosity, the building would not be complete.
  2. He dismissed his critics as ……..………(piety) hypocrites who did not want to face facts.
  3. The …………. (consign) refused to receive the goods mailed to him.
  4. I find it ………….. ( little) to be criticised by someone so much younger than me.
  5. We will have to measure the …..…..….. (broad) of the football pitch.
  6. Identify the ambiguity in the following sentences.

i)         They gave her horse feathers.                                                                          4mks

  1. They sent her love letters.




  1. A)  –  They inform the masses as to what the government is doing on agricultural –


  • They inform them on what it is doing on the light industry.
  • They inform about how individuals can help develop the country.

( expect all the three points well explained – 5mks for each.)

    B) –  To inform through;

  • Making people learn about what is happening in their country and abroad.
  • Keeping them informed in an unbiased way.
  • To entertain through:
  • Crosswords, quizzes, cartoons and horoscopes.

(Expect the two main functions  + the three sub functions – 1 mark for each)

  • A)  (a) The deadman was staring at some frightful burst of light at a distant horizon.      (2mks)

b)  The deadman was a guard – guarding the ice castle – and in the room he found other

      guards.                                                                                                                  2mks

  • They were arranged in the order of their being awake starting from the most alert (awake)  to the most sleepy on the other hand.                                                     2mks
  • His body was perfectly protected and jointed just like an armadillo’s / it seemed to have scales around it.                                                                                                   2mks
  • The weapon was only meant to harm human beings but not the property kept.        2mks
  • i)    armoured   –  Protected especially for fighting

ii)   hideous     –  Frightful or having horror.

iii)  solitude     –  Always along; without company

iv)  graduated  –  Marked into divisions

v)   crammed   –   Filled.

            ( 1 mark for each – Total 5 marks)

B)  a)  Both animals live in the forest and move about for part of the night.                   2mks

      b)  To discount the belief that man – eaters are old and mangy.                                2mks

      c)   There is no justification that the cub of a man-eater turns man-eater also.           2mks

      d)  It is a possibility or probability.                                                                             1mk

  • Comparison.
  • Both are semi-nocturnal
  • Both employ similar killing methods
  • Both are capable of carrying their human victims for long distances.


  • Whereas the tiger loses all fear of human beings, the leopard never.

Expect two comparisons and the contrast.                                     3mks

  • a)  i)     No doubt the criminal has gone out of the country.
  • Nearly all the boys walk to school although a few come on bus.
  • You ought to have come to school last week.
  • Neither the employee nor his boss has come for the annual celebrations.
  • James said that he might have bought the books by the time he goes back but that he shouldn’t count on that.

( No mark for poor punctuation – total 5 mks)

  • i)          Further information shall not be gotten ( by me)
  • No mistakes have been made ( by any one)
  • The books should /are not / must be sold at a discount.
  • You will have been bought the shoes ( by me)
  • The story he told us yesterday was made up ( by jack)

( total 5 mks)

  • i)          taken in
  • make out
  • written off
  • turned on
  • give in
  • touched down             (  Total 6 mks)
  • i)          of
  • in
  • with
  • to
  • up                                 ( Total 5 mks)
  • i)          donors
  • pious
  • consignee
  • belittling
  • breadth                        (Total 5mks)
  • They gave her horse feathers.
  • The feathers were given to her horse.
  • She was given horse feathers – a type of feathers.                 2mks

They sent her love letters.

  1. The letters were sent to her love.
  2. Love letters were sent to her.                                                  2mks



  1. Poetry.

Read the poem and answer the questions that follow:


Path – let … Leaving home, leading out

Return my mother to me.

The sun is sinking and darkness coming,

Hens and cocks are already inside and babies drowsing,

Return my mother to me.

We do not have firewood and I have not seen the lantern,

There is no more food and the water has run out

Path – let me pray, you return my mother to me.

Path of the small hills, path of the small stones

Path of slipperiness, path of the mud

Return my mother to me.

Path of papyrus, path of the rivers

Path of small forests, path of reeds

Return my mother to me

Path, I implore you, return my mother to me

Path of the crossways, path that branches off,

Path of the stringing shrubs, path of the bridge

Return my mother to me

Path of the open, path of the valley

Path of the steep climb, path of the downward slope

Return my mother to me.

Children are drowsing about to sleep,

Darkness is coming and there is no firewood,

And I have not found the lantern;

Return my mother to me.

                                          Stella Ngatho.


  • Who is the persona in this poem? Why?                                                                     (2mks)
  • Identify and explain the effectiveness of any two stylistic devices.                          (6mks)
  • What is the tone of the poem?                                                                                                (2mks)
  • What is the mood of the poem?                                                                                  (2mks)
  • Comment on the title of the poem.                                                                             (2mks)
  • Explain the meaning of the following lines in the poem:
  • Path – let ….. leaving home, leading out.

Return my mother to me,

The sun is sinking and darkness coming…..                                                   (3mks)

  • Path of the cross – ways, path that branches off

Path of the stinging shrubs, path of the bridge

Return my mother to me.                                                                                (3mks)

  • Oral literature. (20 marks)        
  • Define the term ‘genre’ as applied in oral literature.                                                  (2mks)
  • Outline and explain two major characteristics of short forms.                                   (4mks)
  • (i)   What is a proverb?                                                                                                (1mk)

(ii)  Give a proverb from your community and its gloss in English.                           (2mks)

(iii) Cite a situation where the proverb should be used.                                             (2mks)

  • (i)   What is a riddle?                                                                                                  (1mk)

(ii)  Give a riddle from your community and its gloss in English.                              (2mks)

(iii) Classify the riddle and give a reason to justify.                                                   (2mks)

(iv) State the parts to the riddle above and explain the function of one of the parts.                                                                                                                                                            (4mks)

  • Oral literature: Song. (20 marks)

Read the song below and answer the questions that follow:

O what is that sound which so thrills the ear

Down in the valley drumming, drumming?

Only the scarlet soldiers, dear,

The soldier coming.

O what is that light I see flashing so clear

Over the distance brightly, brightly?

Only the sun on their weapons, dear,

As they step lightly.

O what are they doing with all that gear;

What are they doing this morning, this morning?

Only their usual manoeuvres, dear

Or perhaps a warning.

O is it the parson they want with white hair;

Is it the parson, is it, is it?

No, they are passing his gateway, dear,

Without a visit.

O where are you going? Stay with me here!

Were the vows you swore me deceiving, deceiving?

No, I promised to love you, dear,

But I must be leaving.

O it’s broken the lock and splintered the door,

O it’s gate where they’re turning, turning;

Their feet are heavy on the floor

And their eyes are burning.

                                                      (Auden, W.H’s poem slightly adapted)


  • Classify this song.                                                                                                       (2mks)
  • Give the song a suitable title and justify your answer.                                               (2mks)
  • Comment on the personae in the song.                                                                       (4mks)
  • Identify two stylistic devices used in song and show how effectively they have used.


  • What is lost if such song written and not performed?                                                (4mks)
  • Why is such a song sang?                                                                                         (2mks)




  1. (i)  The persona is a child – perhaps an older child – whose mother is away. The child is longing   for her return. ‘Return my mother to me’.                                                                                    (2mks)
  2. Repetition – ‘Path’ is repeated severally, to create the tone of the poem.

  Personification – the paths are personified, the speaker begs them to return the mother.

  (Expect the two plus any other style well illustrated + the effectiveness 3marks for each.   

   No mark lack of one of these).

  • The poem is in a pleading / imploring / beseeching tone. ‘..Path, I implore you, return

         my mother to me.                                                                                                                                             (2mks)

  • The poem is in a sad mood. One feels sad at the concern and despair of the child who   pleads for the mothers return.                                                                           (2mks)
  • The title leads us to the events in the poem. The persona addresses the footpath requested it to return the mother.                                                                                                                      (2mks)
  • (a) The persona requests all the paths / she eagerly longs to see her mother to come

           back through the same paths she departed on.                                                                         (3mks)

(b) The persona mention different types of paths, the paths he / she imagines the mother took on her way home to give back the mother.                                                                 (3mks)

  • (a) This refers to the divisions / classes / branches of oral literature. They include proverbs, riddles, narratives, songs.                                                                                      (2mks)
  • Characteristics of short forms.
  • Are brief – consist mainly of a statement or two.
  • Are compact – the message in the short form is much more than is written in the form.

(Expect all + any other reasonable point + explanation 4marks)

  • (i) Proverb – a brief statement full of hidden meaning and accepted conventionally as an expression of wisdom.                                                                                                1mk)

  (ii) Give marks for proverb + gloss. If either is missing, no marks                                           (2mks)

 (iii) Give application.                                                                                                    (2mks)

  • (i) Riddle – it’s a word puzzle in which familiar objects or situations are referred to  figuratively for us to decipher the meaning. (1mark)

(ii) Give marks for a riddle with the proper format plus the gloss.

 If either is missing, no   marks                                                                        (2mks).

(iii) Classification + reason. If either of the two is missing no mark.                                       (2mks)

(iv) The parts of the riddle;

  • Invitation to riddle (opening formula) – to attract the attention of the audience.
  • Riddle – the riddle itself
  • Response – the solution to the riddle.

(Expect the three parts, 1mark for each. 1mark for the function of either part)

  • (i) It is ballad or love song. Two lovers are singing to each other. In stanza 5 one says;

      Were the vows you swore deceiving, deceiving? And the other response

              No I promised to love you, dear,                                                                             (2mks)

                   (ii)  Accept any reasonable title well supported.                                                                (2mks)

      (iii)  There are two speakers. The first two lines are said by one lover as a question while the second lover gives a response in the second part.

            (Expect all plus illustrations – 4marks)

       (iv) –    Repetition – the last part of the second line in all stanzas has the 2nd last word repeated. This brings out emphasis.

  • Rhyme – the fist and third line rhyme, the 2nd and the fourth rhyme too i.e. clear/dear, brightly, lightly. This is used to bring about rhythm or musically in the poem.

(Expect all + any other well illustrated style).

              (v)        –     The rhythm of the song cannot be heard.

  • Gestures and bodily movements to portray the mood / altitudes cannot be seen.
  • Voice variation to distinguish tone and speakers.
  • There will be no audience to verbalise or join in the performance.
  • Accompanying instruments and costumes are not present.
  • The accompanying dance cannot be shown.

(Expect any four points 4marks)

              (vi) –  To express love for one another.

  • To remind one of the vows made / responsibility in a relationship.
  • To socialise a couple.

(Expect any two points 2marks)



  1. Compulsory.

You have been suspended from school for indiscipline and poor academic performance.  Write out the dialogue that would ensue as you report this to your parent.  Strive to make the dialogue as realistic as possible.

      Choose only ONE TOPIC from the following.

  • Write a story that starts with one of the following:
  • I had just heard the announcement on radio.


  • I just couldn’t come to terms with that.  It was totally unexpected…..
  • Describe an agricultural show that you attended recently.
  • “Traditional medicine has an edge over modern medicine.” Discuss.




  1. The student must write a dialogue and not a story.

Grammar                                       6mks

Format                                            4mks

Vocabulary                                    4mks

Fluency                                         3mks

Relevance                                      3mks


  • The story written must be in past tense.  If not deduct upto 2mks.

Grammar                                       6mks

Vocabulary                                    5mks

Fluency                                         4mks

Relevance                                      5mks


  • Grammar                                       6mks

Vocabulary                                    5mks

Fluency                                         4mks

Expect at least 5 points                 5mks


  • A student must argue both for and against.  If not mark essay out of 10mks

Grammar                                       6mks

Vocabulary                                    5mks

Fluency                                         3mks

Atleast 3 points for                       3mks

At least 3 points against                3mks




  1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

It appeared that big optical telescopes were to be the ultimate means through which Man could obtain information about the stars and galaxies; that is, by observing the light they emitted.  Man had evolved with eyes sensitive to the visible part of the spectrum in the range of wave-lengths which lie between the ultra-violet and the infra-red, and it is over this region that a transparency exists in the earth’s atmosphere.  As the wavelength of light moves towards either the red or blue part of the spectrum it becomes increasingly scattered and absorbed by the water vapour and dust in the atmosphere.

When viewed from earth the sky appears blue because of this scattering of sunlight – the astronauts move above these scattering regions and for them the sky appears black.

It seamed impossible that Man’s knowledge of outer space could ever be accumulated in any part of the spectrum other than through this visible gap, owing to the obscuring effect of the earth’s atmosphere on any radiation lying outside the familiar colours of the rainbow.  However, early researches with radio waves in the 1920s had revealed another area of transparency, at much longer wave-lengths, in the radio wave region. Whereas wave-lengths of visible light are measured in millionths of a centimetre, the radio waves in this other area in the atmosphere, extend from a fraction of a centimetre to many metres in wave-length.  In the central region of this band broadcasting and television transmissions are made on earth.

Although the existence of these wave-lengths was known, it seemed unlikely that they could be of any use to astronomers.  The stars and sun are not bodies, with surface temperatures of many thousands of degrees, and the fundamental laws of physics indicate that their maximum output of energy lies in the visible, or near visible, regions of the spectrum.  It was therefore with amazement that astronomers heard in 1931 and 1932 that an electrical engineer, Karl Jansky, had detected some radiations or signals in the radio part of the spectrum, whose origin, he was convinced, lay in regions of space outside the solar system.

Jansky was working for the Bell Telephone Laboratories in America and had been given the job of finding out the causes of the atmospheric disturbances which spoilt the long-distance telephonic and radio communications in which his company was interested.  His apparatus worked on a rather long wave-length between 14 and 20 metres, and the aerial consisted of an array of rods which can be rotated on a brick foundation. He made the simple and interesting observation that even when there was no obvious cause of atmospherics, such as a thunderstorm, there was some noise unaccounted for in the equipment which varied throughout the day.  It had a regular daily variation, and Jansky made the classic observation that the maximum in this signal occurred 4 minutes earlier each day.  This led him to conclude that the source of interference, or radio noise, must be coming from regions of space outside the solar system.  ( a Sidereal day consists of 23 hours 56 minutes, which is the period of the rotation of the earth with respect to the stars, not the sun. )  his conclusion has become of the utmost importance to the development of astronomical studies.  At the time, astronomers took little notice of Jansky’s discoveries, and the directors of his laboratory instructed him to get on with another job.

                                          Adapted form Discovering the Universe by Lovell.


  1. In not more than 80 words summarise Karl Jansky’s discovery.                                14mks

Rough Draft.

Fair Copy.

  • What is the difference between ordinary sunlight and radio wave?                          6mks
  • A)  Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:

Mr. Nwakor’s letters were always read for him by one of his apprentice traders, Christopher, who had graduated from standard six two years before.  They were read, and answered, in secret, because he wanted the world never to know of his illiteracy.  Behind closed doors he would begin:

“ I am writing to Nwanko Olisa, Sapoba.”

“ What is the full address?” the writer asked.

“Sapoba I said.”

“But that’s not enough.  The Post Office cannot deliver it with that short address.”

“I shall deliver it by hand.  How will the Post Office know my cousin?  There’s someone going there tomorrow and he will deliver it by hand, so write and tell him that we all greet him.”

The boy wrote that “yes, what next?” he asked.

“Tell him that we all have enquired about their health including that of his wife and children.”

“But your former greeting has covered that.”

“Come on write it? Shouldn’t I ask about the health of my cousin?  If that pad finishes I’ll buy another.”

The boy obediently wrote but only added a phrase to show that the greeting just given should cover his whole family.


“Tell him that we are all well here.  Only hunger is the trouble.  If he can send some shillings we shall happily accept them.  Yes, lest I forget, he should send, along with any gifts, the contributions towards the building of the school, which I have paid for him.  That is ten shillings.  Then, of course, his wife at home has been brought to bed of a male child and the outing ceremony must be done and his in-laws must be seen and his……”

“Wait!” objected the letter-writer.  “It is too long.  How do you think I can remember all that? Let me catch up”.

He wrote, summarising everything as much as possible, anxious to get away from that hideout.  Mr. Nwakor felt that he had finished too soon.  How could he have written all that long talk?

      “Read it to me, “he insisted.  The boy read the letter in English.  Even though Mr. Nwakor did not follow, he refused to admit it.  How can somebody who could not follow the contents of the letter supply the omissions? He agreed that everything had been written down.


  1. Supply a suitable title to this passage and justify it.                                                   2mks
  2. Why, in your opinion, does the boy read the letter back in English.                          2mks
  3. Do you think Mr. Nwakors way of announcing the birth of a new baby is satisfactory?

Why?                                                                                                                           2mks

  • Which is the most important point contained in the letter written?                           2mks
  • Is Mr. Nwakor suspicious about the contents of the letter? Why?                             2mks
  • From the information in the passage, do you think Mr. Nwakor had planned what he wanted written? Explain.                                                                                                           2mks
  • Explain the meaning of the following words as used in the passage.                      3mks
  • Apprentice
  • Objected
  • Anxious.
  • Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

The woman, a formidable creature in a cotton suka over a cheap blouse, and wearing a brilliant scarf tightly wound about her head, surveyed him with mock surprise, and announced in a voice that boomed throughout the vehicle.

“What a fine gentlemen we have here.  A fancy man who thinks the bus is his Mercedes Benz.”

There   was some good-natured chuckling at this, but Daudi didn’t find it at all funny. “I’ll thank you to sit somewhere else,”  he said, “I’ve paid for one seat, and one seat I shall have, so off you go.”

The woman’s sole response was to wedge her huge thighs more firmly on the seat, and pile her bundles on her lap.  Then she gave him an impudent grin and cried, “very well – move me if you want me to go.  Go on, move me, you thief.”

The laughter rose all around them and Daudi, his nose twitching and the bag gripped between his feet could only glare at her, “I don’t intend to make a scene,” said at last his voice croaking with indignation.

“ Go on, man, try moving her,” called out a man sitting in front who had so far found the journey boring,

“Yes,” echoed a few more people. “Try moving her.”

Soon everybody aboard the bus had joined in the game and the woman appeared to be enjoying the fun laugher and pressing against poor Daudi.

With her behaviour and the old man on the other side constantly nudging him, Daudi began to feel that he was in the midst of some dreadful nightmare.


  1. Do you think Daudi was right to feel disgusted with humanity?  Explain.                2mks
  2. Contrast the characters of Daudi and the woman                                                       3mks
  3. Why did the woman say that Daudi looked like a thief and yet he was smartly dressed? 


  • Why did the passengers suddenly turn against Daudi when all along they had been quiet?


  • Why did Daudi feel that “he was in the midst of some dreadful nightmare”?           2mks
  • Explain the meaning of the following words as used in the passage.                       4mks
  • Formidable
  • Chuckling
  • Indignation
  • Dreadful
  • Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given after each.
  • She does not have the courage to fight for her rights.
  • There are seven players in a handball team (Begin: A handball ……)
  •  I don’t like beans.  My brother doesn’t like it either. (use …… neither…..)
  •  As soon as we arrived in the stadium, the game began. (Begin: No sooner…)
  •  He always looked after vehicle well. (Begin: He always took….)
  •  I wonder how it feels to be deaf and lame.  (Begin:  I wonder what…..)
  • Rewrite the following sentences using a single word to replace the words underlined.
  • The story by the student was impossible to believe.
  • Her handwriting was very hard to be seen therefore she lost many marks.
  • Joan is a specialist in the study of microscopic forms of life.
  • The man who fells and transports timber has been arrested by the forest officers.
  • Jack bought his sheets, mattresses and blankets from that shop last week.
  • The writer used a combination of words that irritate the sounds in his story.
  • Change the word in brackets to fit suitably in the blank spaces:

i)  The stains on his trousers was ______________________________   (notice)

  1. To make profit you must stock _____________________________  ( sell) goods.
  2. It is not good to keep ______________________ (Straight) your tie wen giving a speech.
  3. Our car is ____________________________ (rely) for this journey, we shall use public means.
  4. Don’t be a _________________________ (hinder) to the development of your brothers Christian life.
  5. There is always a ____________________ (scarce) of rain in the northern part of Kenya.
  • Fill in the blank spaces with the correct proposition.
  •  The students arrived __________________________ the school last week
  • The food was distributed to all the children _____________________________ home.
  • We are not terrified ________________________________ them.
  • Your book is identical _________________________________ mine.
  • The teacher is intolerant _______________________________ lazy
  • He is always __________________________________ great pains to stress this point during the assembly.
  • Replace the underlined words with the correct word(s) with the same meaning.

i)   The car drew up at the garage.           

  1. Please carry on with the assignment.
  2.  The thief made away with the money.
  3. I stood on the hill and took in the scene from there.
  4. They look after their children well.
  5. Students who bully others never get away with it.




  1. a)  –  He detected radiation in the radio part of the spectrum.
  2. origin of the radiation is outside the solar system.
  3. Used equipment with a wave length of 14 – 20 metres and an aerial with an array of rods
  4. Even when there’s no cause of atmospherics such as thunder, there was unaccounted for noise in equipment.
  5. There was no regular daily variation the maximum in her signal occurring 4 minutes earlier each day.
  6. Interference was from regions of space outside solar system.

Expect all six points – 2 marks for each points – 2 marks for continuity – if not in prose mark out of 7.

     b)   –  Wave- length of light in radio wave region is measured in millionths of a CM

  • Radio waves extend from a fraction of a CM to many metres.

Expect all 3 marks for each – total 6mks.

  • A:  a)  A letter / A letter form home.

Accept any other justified 2 mks block.  If no justification no mark.

b)   So that Mr. Nwakor does not notice ‘the omissions in the letter.  Mr. Nwakor

       doesn’t understand English.                                                                                      2mks

  • It is not.  The language used makes it hard for the reader to comprehend what has happened and what is to be done.                                                                           2mks
  • That his wife has given birth to a baby boy and that there is a ceremony to be carried out as is customary.                                                                                                            2mks
  • Yes, he feels that the boy had finished writing all the he’d said rather too early.  He thus must have left out certain’ points.
  • No.  He keeps on recalling information as he says it eg. Yes, lest I forget……. This shows that he had not planned what was to be written.                                                  2mks
  • Apprentice – person working with skilled employer to learn a trade objected – protest.
B:    a)   Yes .  The other passengers seemed to favour the woman even when she’s was provocative
                and abusive of Daudi.                                                                                       2mks
  •  Whereas Daudi is polite, the woman is abusive /  harsh.

Accept any other contrast.  I mark for the contrast and 1 mark for each illustration.

  • She wanted to find a way of ensuring that Daudi doesn’t sit on that seat.  She is again abusive.                                                                                                                2mks
  • Due to his change in voice.  They thought that he meant to harm the woman physically.                                                                                                                                         2mks
  • Since everyone had turned against him and the woman seems to enjoy this very much and it even makes her to press on him more to irritate him more.                                                2mks
  • Formidable  –  frightening.

Chuckling        –  laughing quietly to oneself.’

Indignation – anger caused by an unjust occurrences

Dreadful  – causing great fear or terror.

  • a)  i)     She daren’t fight for her rights.
  • A handball team consists of seven players
  • I don’t like beans and neither does my brother.
  • No sooner had we arrived at the stadium than the game began.
  • He always took great care of his vehicle.
  • I wonder what being deaf and lame feels like.                             Total 6mks.

      b)  i)    Incredible.

  1. Illegible
  2. Microbiologist
  3. Lumberjack
  4. Bedding
  5. Onomatopoeia                  (1 Mark for each.  No mark for wrong spellings)
  • i)    Noticeable
  • Saleable
  • Straightening
  • Unreliable
  • Hinderance
  • Scarcity     ( 1 mark for each.   No mark for wrong spellings)
  • i)    at
  • in
  • about
  • to
  • of
  • at                                       (total 6mks)
  • i)   Stopped
  • Continue
  • Stole
  • Absorbed / enjoyed
  • Reared
  • Escape unpunished.                      ( total  6 mks)



  1. Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow:

The Beard.

In the pulpit he swayed and turned.

Leant forward, backward,

To the right; to the left

His solemn voice echoed;

Lowly the congregation followed

“Do you love your neighbours?”

Meekly they bow at his keen eye

Now examining a grey head

Hearing under her sobs.

His heart leapt assured –

“ Her sins weigh on her!”

So with her he chats outside;

“Weep not child you are pardoned.”

“But, Sir , your beard conjured up

The spirit of my dear goat!”

                                    Proscoria Rwakama.


  1. Identify the setting of the poem.                                                                          2mks
  2. Identify the persons referred to in the poem.                                                       4mks
  3. What is the predominant mood in the poem?                                                       2mks
  4. Comment on two stylistic devices used in the poem.                                           6mks
  5. Explain the meaning of the following:

i)   Do you love your neighbour

  1. Weep not child you are pardoned.
  2. “But, sir, your beard conjured up

        The spirit of my dear goat!”


Read the song below and answer the questions that follow:

Tswi – tswiri! I the person, I suspect!

What have you heard that makes you suspicious?

I heard things said, rumours of weaver birds;

They ate corn in Lesiba’s field and finished it

And when they left they sounded hummmmmm……..

They said, “listen to the numerous weaver birds.

Sons of Mosima’s family,

Children of the horse that ate the courtyards and times.

It is the numerous weaver birds,

They grey ones that go about in swarms,

Children with the little red beaks,

Children that make a noise in the mimosa trees.

Tupu – tupu! The smoke comes out while the dew glitters

Howaa! Sweaa! – is heard in the early morning

They are fishing the corn, the numerous weaver birds,

Children with the little red beaks.

At home it is yo! yo!

The children are crying,

Their mothers have gone to the fields to the birds,

It is the Zulus that have entered the country.

Take axes and lop the tree branches,

Yo! This year we shall eat fire,

We, shall lack even a blue – tongued goat!

It is numerous weaver birds.

The grey ones that go about in swarms.


  1. In what category is this song?  Explain.                                                                     2mks
  2. Comment on two stylistic devices employed in this song.                                         4mks
  3. What is the purpose of this song and what is the message contained?                      4mks
  4. For the performance of this song what would the performer add to it to make it interesting?                                                                                                                                  4mks
  5. Give the character traits of the weaver birds.                                                             4mks
  6. What are the socio-economic activities of the people talked about in the song?       2mks




  1. a)  The title’s relevance could be looked at from three perspectives.

i)     The title signifies the destroying / killing of the brightness that could have shown

      the way for Africa.  The three gentlemen Bana, Sazan and Jiriba have been    

      sentenced to death for alleged robbery.

  1. The word ‘sun’ could also be taken to be a pun for the son that is killed by the government mainly for being vocal against them.  There is evidence for a lot of corruption and ‘bigger’ cases of theft in the story.  We get the impression that there is more than meets the eyes in the execution.
  2. The killing of the sun could also indicate the destroying of any other positive critic.  None will come up as a critic for fear of being executed the Sazan, Bana, Jimba – manner.

Expect the three perspectives well explained and illustrated 7:7:7.

  • a)  The setting is in the church.  Reference is made to the pulpit

b)  The preacher – his voice is ‘Do you love your neighbour.  He’s preaching.              2mks

     A woman in the congregation.  ‘Her sins weigh on her.                                             2mks

  1. Sombre mood  –  The congregation as represented by the woman are weighed down by sin and are sad with this situation.  They are not sure they will be forgiven.              2mks
  • i)  Dialogue – there are instances of words quoted verbalim in the poem. Eg. “Her  sins weigh on her”.  This brings out the mood and the character of the woman and the preacher.
  • Irony – Its ironical that as the preacher gives the sermon the woman instead of listening to the message is comparing the preachers beard to her goats.

       Expect all 2 marks for each total 4 marks.

  • i)  This is in reference to the command that people are to love their neighbours as they love themselves.                                                                                                                        2mks
  • the preacher tells the woman sobbing that she should not continue being sorrowful because her sins are forgiven.
  • The woman tells the preacher that his beard bought to her memories of her dear goat that passed away.                                                                                                        2mks
  • a)  It is a work / harvest song.  The song has many idiophones that could be used to keep the

    birds away.                                                                                                                  2mks

  • i)  Idiophones  –  Tswi – tswiri, howaa! Sweaa! These imitates sounds made by the  

           different animals.

       It makes a song more lively and adds variety.

  1. Direct translation –  this year we shall eat fire, the smoke comes out.  This also makes the story lively.                 Expect all 2 mks for each.
  • Its used to easen the harvesting duty and the same time to encourage people to work hard towards scaring off the weaver birds that are destroying the maize crop. 

 Expect all well explained and illustrated 4 mks

  • i)  Mimicry and imitation of sounds produced.
  • Tonal variation
  • Dramatisation of events and activities
  • Involve all concerned  – women, children etc
  • Use of facial expressions.

Expect any four 1 mk for each.

  • i)  Gluttonous / Greedy/ ravenous  –  they ate maize in Lesibas field and finished it.
  • Fearsome  –  they are compared to the Zulu armies that attacked homesteads and overpowered the inhabitants.

Expect both well illustrated 4mks

  • i)  Farming  –  they plant corn, millet, finger millet, sorghum and simsim.
  • Division of duties  –  women are expected to go to the farm and tend for their crop.         Expect both 2 mks.




Your friend has written a letter to you, requesting you to give him or her clear directions to your home from the main town closest to your home.  Reply this letter.


  • Write a story that illustrates one of the following sayings:


  1. One good turn deserves another


  • Faint heart never won a fair lady.
  • Describe your ideal school.
  • Explain the term co-education and say whether you think it is an important component to socialization of the student.




  1. Must be an informal letter in present tense.
  2. Grammar                                       6mks
  3. Format                                           4mks
  4. Vocabulary                                    4mks
  5. Fluency                                         3mks
  6. Relevance                                      3mks


  • Must be a story in past tense.  It not deduct upto 2 marks.  If meaning of proverb is omitted deduct 1mk.
  • Grammar                                       6mks
  • Introduction – meaning                2mks
  • Vocabulary                                    4mks
  • Relevance                                      4mks
  • Fluency                                         4mks


  •    –       Grammar                                        6mks
  • Vocabulary                                    5mks
  • Fluency                                         4mks
  • Expect at least 5points                  5mks


  • Student must argue both for and against.  If not mark essay out of 10mks

–  Grammar                                          6mks

  • Vocabulary                                    5mks
  • Fluency                                         3mks
  • At least 3 points for                      3mks
  • At least 3 points against                3mks





Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

The major was broad and seemed to constructed of a series of pink ovals:  balding head and fat oval face, fat neck that topped curving shoulders which formed the upper curve of the big oval that was his rotund trunk:  he could have been an advertisement for good cheer.  He was in shirtsleeves, and the hands which emerged from the starched cuffs were pink and plump and oval.  Only his eyes were small and round and shiny, like two glass beads; small, bright, conscienceless eyes.  Yet when he spoke his voice took on a friendly, sympathetic tone, like a doctor advising a patient.

“Ah ja, we know you”,  he said, “You must believe that we have known you for some time, but until now we have not bothered.  But certain things have happened, is it not?  So now we have become interested.  “The small prissy mouth smiled, but his eyes belied the assumed air of bonhomie.  There was a defect in the disguise, the mask did not conceal all.

“I do not understand the ingratitude of your people,” he went on.  “Look what we, our Government, have done for your people.  We have given you nice jobs, houses, education.  Education, ja.  Take education for instance.  We have allowed you people to get education, your own special schools, but you are not satisfied.  No, you want more than what you get.  I have heard that some of your young people even want to learn mathematics.  What good is mathematics to you?  You see you people are not the same as we are.  We can understand these things, mathematics.  We know the things which are best for you.  We have gone far to help you, do things for you.   Yet you want to be like the whites.

Its impossible.  You want this country to be like Ghana.  The Congo.  Look what they did in the Congo.   You people will never be able to govern anything.  But we understand that you must have certain things, right, so we have arranged for you to have the things you need, under our supervision.”

The rotund body squirmed in the chair;  the plump, pink hands were extended open on the desk in a gesture of appeal.  The little blue eyes even looked sad, or was it a trick of light?  The prisoner looked at him and thought he believes he is making a speech, pleading with me to understand for an instant he wanted to laugh, but the major went on and he listened again with curiosity to the words.

“Yes, you see, man, we have granted you all this. “The oval hands motioned towards the buff files, the paper clips.  “But people like you are never satisfied.  You want to mislead your people, just like you have been misled by certain other people – clever people, priests, lawyers,  communists.”  “Jews,”  the sportsman added, speaking for the first time.  He looked furiously at the prisoner, as if affronted that the major should have the condescend to educating this animal.

“We want you people to accept what we are doing,”  the major said.  “But some, like you for instance, think they are smart.  Nobody believes you, but you keep on.  Now it is my task to stop it, you see.  It is my duty to destroy your organization.  Already you people are on your knees, soon you will be on your bellies.  Soon we will stamp you out altogether.  We know all about you.  You see, man, it is no use, because we have people working for us, for the good of your people, and they co-operate with us.”

                  Adapted from in the Fog of the seasons End, La Gume.


  1. In not more than 80 words summarise what the major says in the passage.               14mks

Rough Draft.

Fair Copy

  • Write notes on the majors appearance.                                                                       6mks

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

The next day S.M.O.G had to go to the General Hospital to see his sick mother.  So he could not accompany Chike to the money doubler.  But he had described carefully  the way up to the mans place and Chike set out on his own.

The place was not difficult to find.  The signboard outside read:

                              PROFESSOR CHANDUS

                              FAMOUS MARGICIAN and  herbalists

                              A TRIAL WILL CONVINSE YOU.

He was a short man and wore a white singlet that had turned brown.  His shorts were oversize.  They were made from very hard material like tarpaulin and creaked when he sat down.

“ What do you want?” he said

      “ I want you to double my money,” said Chike

      “ How much?” asked the man

      “ Threepence”.

      “Three what?”

      “Threepences”, said Chike.  “That’s all I have.”

      “Ha ha ha ha ha ! He’s brought threepence to Professor Chandus.  Ha ha ha ha !”

      “That’s all I have,” said Chike again.

      “All right,” said Chandus.  “I like you very much.  What’s your name?


      “Chike, I like you.  What is your fathers occupation?”

      “My father is dead,” said Chike

      “Yes, I knew that but I wanted to test you,” said Chandus.

Chike wondered how he knew.  It showed he was a real magician.

“ Professor Chandus does not double threepence, but he will help you”, he said. “I will give you something which will bring you plenty of money.  Look at me.”

      Chike looked steadily at him.  He brought out a six-inch nail from his pocket and pushed it into his nostril until the whole length had disappeared.

      “Call me Professor Chandus”,  he said.

      “Professor Chandus,” said Chike.

      “That is my name.  Am alpha and Omega’

Abracadabra.  Pick up that piece of paper”

      Chike picked up a small, dirty piece of paper from the floor and gave it to the man.

      “Watch carefully,” said Chandus.  He squashed the paper between the palms and whispered something into the closed fist.  Then he opened his hands and there was a small ring of wire there.  He gave this to Chike. 

      “When you get home,” said Chandus, “dip it in water seven times.  Then put it under your pillow when you sleep.  In the morning it will bring you plenty of money.”

      “The spirits want something from you”,  said Chandus.

      “I have nothing but this threepence”, replied Chike.

      “It will do”, said Chandus.  “Tomorrow the spirits will reward you”.

      Chike reluctantly gave him the threepence.


  1. Supply a suitable title to this passage and justify your choice.                                   2mks
  2. Is there anything wrong with the notice outside the money-doubler’s house?  Explain.                                                                                                                                           2mks
  3. In your own opinion is Chandus a true magician?  Explain.                                      3mks
  4. Describe Chikes character from the information given in this passage.                     2mks
  5. Why do you think Chandus asks about Chikes father?                                              2mks
  6. Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases as used in the passage.     4mks

      i)   Singlet  _________________________________________________________________

      ii)  Creaked ________________________________________________________________

      iii)  Squashed ______________________________________________________________

      iv)  Reluctantly ____________________________________________________________

  • Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:

My mother used to work long hours in the garden while my father was also working all day for a European farmer.  She did not have anyone to help her to take care of me whilst she was working in the field, and she therefore fastened me on her back in a cloth.  This was very tiring as she had to bend down all the time using a long knife for cultivation, or digging with a hoe.  Sometimes I lay on her back crying or sleeping, but as long as I was fed and dry my mother would continue working.

When I grew a little bigger, my mother could not work properly with me on her back and so she used to lay me down at the foot of a banana tree.  She would make sure that the sun was not shining directly on me and that the shadow of the banana tree was cast on me so that it would protect me from the hot sun.

One day my mother and my aunt, Wangui, were working together, and as usual they laid me under a banana tree because the sun was very hot.  They had already fed me and I was nice and dry.  They continued digging and singing happily.  For a while they forgot me and as the time went by, the shadow of the banana tree moved away and exposed me to the sun.

The sun started to burn me and though I tossed and cried, both my aunt and my mother thought it normal for a baby to cry.  I cried louder, and then my voice grew faint and thin.  At this my mother looked back towards my tree and saw me still in the burning sun.


     “Whats wrong?” my aunt had not seen me.

     “We forgot the baby and he might be dead!”

     “Oh!” cried my aunt.  “Lets run fast!”

     They Scrambled up, and, dropping their hoes, ran to me.  They lifted up the little cloth with which they had covered me and to their horror found that I was bright red all over like pepper.

     “Oh, my son!”

     “What shall we tell his father?” asked my mother

     “He’ll be very angry; we must do something quickly”.

They rushed me to a near by well and put me in the water.  They bathed me all over but I was still as red as before.  Then they covered me with wet mud, but this was no better.  At last, back in the garden, they oiled and fed me, and again laid me in the shadow of the banana tree.  But this time they watched me all the time.

The day passed and they worked on, wondering what they could tell my father.


  1. What is unusual about this story?                                                                                     2mks
  2. Why did the women notice something was wrong only when the baby’s voice became faint and thin?                                                                                                                           2mks
  3. Identify the  imagery used in this story.                                                                           3mks
  4. What was the speakers mother’s main worry?  Explain                                                   3mks
  5. Explain the meaning of the following words as used in the passage.                              4mks
  6. Fastened. ____________________________________________________________
  7. Cast ________________________________________________________________
  8. Tossed _____________________________________________________________
  9. Scrambled ___________________________________________________________
  • Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given after each.
  1. If I hadn’t lost my air fare back, it would have been the most memorable trip. 

(Begin:  But __________________________________________________________

  1. As soon as he opened his mouth to speak, everyone burst into laughter.

(Begin:  Hardly ________________________________________________________

  1. If it weren’t for the surgeons competence the accident victim would have died.

(Begin:  Had ____________________________________________________________

  1. No outing could have been more pleasant.  (Begin:  It ……….. and end with ……… be)
  2. Eskimo women are very short.  Very few of them are above five feet tall.  (Join into one sentence using the word hardly).
  • Replace the underlined word or words with the correct phrasal verb with the same meaning as the underlined word.
  • She normally vomits whenever she has malaria.
  • The vehicle stopped at the railway crossing.
  • Its not good to despise those who are poor.
  • His lie didn’t succeed and he was beaten thoroughly.
  • That point arose during the heated discussion.
  • Fill in the blank spaces with the correct preposition.
  • The school authority is very concerned. ___________________________________ drug abuse in the school.
  • You need to be all round inorder to succeed ________________________________ business.
  • ________________________________ preparing of he lesson we had to read for the exam.
  • I am sorry ____________________________ the harm I might have caused you.
  • I agreed ___________________________________ her suggestion that I come the following month.
  • Complete the following sentences with the correct modal auxiliary verb.
  • I ____________________________________________ do with a cup of hot tea.
  • The air was quite calm they ___________________________ see for miles.
  • You ___________________________ go to the party since it is forbidden.
  • Wambui ______________________________ drive at night since she has a poor eye sight.
  • Why _______________________________ I not talk to him?
  • Join each of the following pairs of sentences turning one of them into a participle phrase.

i)     The teacher punished the student.  He was angered by the mistake she had done.

  1. The policeman ordered him to stand up.  He came up to him and handcuffed him.
  2. Jack was coming to school.  He saw the young girl ran over by the car.
  3. She noticed that the man was a thief.  She opened the door and  ran away.
  4. James hurried to the venue.  He found the match had already kicked off.
  • Rewrite the following sentences changing them into passive voice or active as appropriate.
  • Jane might be sent to America in December by her school.
  • The vehicle has disappeared;  it must have been stolen.
  • Pick the rice in time.
  • He dared to strike the leopard.
  • Johns brother, Peter, came to visit him.




  1. a)  –  He doesn’t understand the blacks ingratitude.
  2. Blacks have been given jobs, houses, education but they still want to Learn mathematics,  though they don’t have the capability of learning it.
  3. Black cant govern they can only destroy the country.
  4. The addressee is misleading other blacks
  5. He would like people to accept what they are doing
  6. He’s going to stop the addressee by destroying their organisation, he knows all about them.

Expect all six points in prose ( 2mks for each  6 x 2 = 12mks – 2 mks for continuity).  If not in prose, deduct 1 mk for each point.

      b)  –     Has a bald head and a flat face

  • Has a fat neck
  • Has curbing shoulders
  • Has pink, plump hands
  • Has small round and shiny eyes
  • Has a friendly and sympathetic voice.

Expect all six points in point form – 1 mark for each.  If not in point form, deduct ½ for each point.

  • a)  The money- doubler / the magician.

Accept any other plus justification –  2mks

 block if no justification, no mark.

  •  b)  Yes:  The spellings of professor, magician and convince.
  • He is not.  He is using his brains to con people off their money .        3mks each
  • He is Gullible – he is conned by the money-doubler.

2mks block – accept any other trait illustrated

  • To prove to him further that he actually was a magician.  Pretending to have known that Chike’s father was actually dead.                                  2mks block
  • Singlet  –  Sleeveless garment normally worn under a shirt

Creaked  –  make a harsh sound like an unoiled door

Squashed  –  to be pressed flat

Reluctantly   –  Unwillingly.

   B: a)  The fact the speaker or narrator is very very young and is giving us details

about himself.  It is not possible.                                                    2mks block

  • After noticing that the boys voice had become faint and thin, they looked towards the direction and noticed that the baby was in the  scorching sun.                                2mks
  • Simile  –   Bright red all over like pepper.

1mk for the image and two marks for the illustration

  • She was worried about what she was going to tell his father.  When she gets to the baby she says “Oh, my son!” “What shall we tell his father?”

( 1mk for the worry and 2 for the illustration.

  • Fastened           –  Make tight

Cast                 – shed

Tossed             – Cause to move from a place to another

Scrambled       –  Struggle or complete with others.

  • a)  i)  But for my losing my air fare back, it would have been the most memorable trip   
  • Hardly had he opened his mouth to speak than everyone burst into laughter.
  • Had it not been for the surgeons competence, the accident victim would have died.
  • It was as pleasant as any outing could be
  • Eskimo women are very short, hardly are they above five feet tall.

1mk for each total 5mks

        b)  i)  Throws up

  1. Pulled up
  2. Look down upon
  3. Come off
  4. Came up                         1mk for each.  Penalise for poor punctuation and tense.
  • i)      about
  • in
  • besides
  • about
  • to                                    total 5mks
  • i)  Should
  • Could
  • Must not
  • Should not
  • Must                               total 5mks
  • i)  angered by the mistake she had done, the teacher punished the student
  • Ordering him to stand up, the policeman came up to him and handcuffed him.
  • Coming to school, Jack saw a young girl ran over by the car
  • Noticing that the man was a thief, she opened the door and ran away.
  • Hurrying to the venue,  James found the match had already kicked off.                                                    Total 5mks
  • i)     Jane’s school might sent her to America in December.
  • They must have stolen the vehicle which has disappeared.
  • The rice should / must/ ought to be picked in time
  • The leopard was daringly struck by him.
  • John was visited by his brother Peter
  • Read the poem below  and answer the  question that follow:

Western Civilization

Sheets of  tin nailed to posts

Driven in the ground

Make up the house

Some rags complete

The ultimate landscape

The sun slanting through the cracks

Welcomes the owner.

After twelve hours of slave


Breaking rock

Shifting rock

Breaking rock

Shifting rock

Fair weather

Wet weather

Breaking rock

Shifting rock

Old age comes early

A mat on dark rights

Is enough when he dies


Of hunger

                                    Agostiriho Neto

     a)  i) Why does old age come early to the owner?                                                             2mks

           ii) Why should the owner die gratefully?                                                                    2mks

( b) What is implied in ;

       “ The sun slanting  through the cracks

         welcomes the owners”

(c) What is the irony in the poem?                                                                                     4mks

(d) How has rhythm been brought out in the poem. Explain and show its  effect.            4mks

(e) Describe the poem  ordinary language .                                                                        4mks

(f) What is the meaning of :          

“ sheets of tin nailed to posts”                                                                                    2mks

  • What preparation does one need to carry out before embarking on a field study? 5mks
  • With  examples, explain the features of short forms in African oral    literature.     5mks
  • What are the functions of the opening and opening formulae in narratives              4mks
  • How is language used in proverbs different from that in tongue twisters?              2mks  




  1. a) i)  He’s meant to work very hard and in dilapidated conditions  –  ‘twelve hours of

 slave labour, breaking rock and shifting it.                                                                2mks

  1. He’d prefer death to living.  There seems to be more peace in death than in being alive because of the bad conditions of living.                                                                   2mks
  2. The shanties in which they stay are not well covered by the sun rays penetrate through the gaps to wake up ‘the owner’.                                                                                                2mks
  3. The title is ironical, whereas civilization is meant to be positive, it is not in this poem since it appears to have brought a lot of suffering to the owner.

Its also ironical that the poet should talk of dying gratefully.  People prefer death to life.                           Expect both points well explained

  • Rhythm has been brought out by use of repetition

“Breaking rock

Shifting rock

This is repeated to show the cycle of the working by the owner.  It brings about the mood in the poem.                                                                                                                        4mks

  • In the poem  “the owner” – a black who lives in a shanty made of tin and putting on rags is made to work in a construction twelve hours in a day.  This is done irrespective of the weather conditions – in good or bad weather.  This causes him to age quickly and die of hunger.                                                                                                                 4mks
  • It means shanties constructed from iron sheets nailed on posts.                                2mks
  • a)  i)  Identify the topic of study and prepare the objectives
  • Prepare the relevant tools for the research e.g questionnaires, interview schedules.
  • Obtain permission from the relevant authorities
  • Carry out a feasibility study  –  Pre-visit study.
  • Have the equipment ready.
Expect all 1 mark for each total 5mks

     b)  i)  They are short and brief.  They consist of a few sentences eg Riddles,  proverbs    

  1. They use codes generally.  One as to go beyond the surface to get their meanings e.g Riddles, proverbs.
  2. They have balance and symmetry in their structure e.g Tongue twisters.
  3. They are presented normally informally.  Could be discussion, at work during ordinary conversation. Eg. Proverbs, tongue twisters.

Expect all four well illustrated 1 mark for each.

  1. i)  They have rhythm  –  there is a clearly  marked steady beat to which one

can drum or dance.

  1. The pace in the songs is different from ordinary speech.  Its normally faster in songs.
  2. The volume and intensity is stronger than in ordinary speech
  3. The range of intonation or variation in the voice from low to high is wide.  There has to be melody in song.
  4. In presentation pitch varies greatly.  It fluctuates from high to low and versa.              Expect all well explained 1 mark for each.
  • i)  Opening formula e.g  Once upon a time
  • It marks the beginning of the narrative
  • It carries the audience from the present to the ancient or fantasy world.
  • It marks timelessness in the narrative.

ii)  Closing formula e.g they lived happily ever after

  • It marks the end of the presentation
  • It brings the audience back to the world of reality – from the fantasy world.

Expect any two functions of each well explained 1 mark

for each = total 4mks

  • The language in proverbs  is more complex and one needs to go beyond the surface to get its relevance.  Tongue twisters have a simple language whose emphasis is on alliteration and assonance.                                                                                                               2mks



  1. Compulsory

Imagine you are newspaper reporter. Your editor sends you to report on the arrival of the president of a neighbouring country at the local international Airport. You have instructions to follow the presidents’ procession to its destination. You make notes of the events and when you return to the office you settle down to write the article for the next morning’s paper.

Using the notes you have made and any other information you consider relevant write the article.

Choose only one topic from the following:

  • Write a composition that illustrates one of the following proverbs:


  • Misfortunes never come singly.


  • A burnt child dreads the fire.
  • How have women contributed to the development of our country?
  • Primary school fees should be abolished. Discuss



  1. –    Must be in past tense. If not deduct                                                                           (2mks)
  2. Use third person mainly in the passive                                                                       (2mks)

Grammar                                              –   6mks

Vocabulary                                           –   4mks

Relevancy                                            –   5mks

Fluency                                                –   5mks

Total                                                         20mks

  • Must be a story in past tense. If not deduct                                                                     (1mk)

If the proverb is omitted deduct.                                                                                      (2mks)

Introduction – Meaning of proverb          –           2mks

Grammar                                                   –           6mks

Vocabulary                                                –           4mks

Relevance                                                  –           4mks

Fluency                                                     –           4mks


  • Grammar                                                   –           6mks

Vocabulary                                                –           4mks

Fluency                                                     –           3mks

Expect atleast 7points                               –           7mks

Total                                                                      20mks

  • This is a discursive essay.

A student must argue for and against.

Grammar                                                   –           6mks

Vocabulary                                                –           4mks

Fluency                                                     –           3mks’

Atleast 4 points for                                   –           4mks

Atleast 3 points against                             –           3mks




  1. Read the following passage and then answer the questions that follow.

Give me the school where discipline regimentation and good manners are not everything. We would rather have a school where we can talk on equal terms with our teacher on sex, morals, ethics, loyalty, religion etc. We want a school where teaching will be equated with a perpetual quest for truth, beauty, integrity. A school where personality and brain building come first and diplomas or certificates last. After all, a diploma or a degree is not the perfect vaccine against stupidity.                          

                                                                                                                              Cosette, 17

…….Most of all, Lord, let those in authority realise that we are human beings, with brains and minds capable of acting without prompting, not computers to be programmed and switched on and off.                                                                                     

Anne, 17

I consider it essential that the school should change with the body of pupils it contains and with the society in which they must be adapted to live.

                                                                                                                              Lesley, 17

I don’t think I would get on very well in my ideal school because I am too used to being told what to do.                 

                                                                                                                              Francis, 15

Our school is like a sausage machine, Churn, churn, churn – and there we have it, an eight – O – levelled genius. Three cheers for the G.C.E, and this product of the examination system: a stuffed puppet, reeting off facts and dates and predigested ideas at the pull of a string, wondering if it was worth it and if this is really intelligence.

      Boredom. Twenty-eight pairs of vacant eyes regarding with a hollow stare the woman at the front of the room who does the churning. Twenty – eight minds, too bored to think and twenty – eight bodies, too lethargic to do anything except sprawl over desks and carve names, with infinite cave, on the lids.

      This is education. This is the way in which a child’s enthusiasm for learning is squashed to the point of non-existence. It is not surprising that so many people escape after O – level, the climax of the whole silly system.

      I am not educated in the sense that I can hold my own in adult society. I have felt continually suppressed at school, and any confidence I gained has been thwarted. Much more emphasis should be laid on oral self-expression. It is not easy to bring a shy, self-conscious child out of his or her shell, but the effort should be made. It is difficult to imagine what difficulties a self-conscious child can go through, longing to express himself yet finding the effort too great and too painful. Most potential is lost, and many children come to hate school simply because it is a place where they cannot bring themselves to discuss their ideas and emotions…..

      Mine are no highly impossible dreams…… once the fundamental difficulties are overcome, schooldays could well become the best days of one’s life.

                                                                                                                              Elizabeth, 16

My conception of an ideal school is a co-educational day school. I see no advantage to be gained through cutting children off from their parents, nor insegregating the sexes. Schools, after all, are not only to educate but also to fit the pupil for his life ahead, so that boarding and segregated schools which often cause social upsets and shyness are a bad idea. It is argued that a boarding school teaches the pupil to stand on his own two feet and to live in a community, but, in my opinion, ordinary day-school will do that equally well.

                                                                                                                              Alexandra, 13

(Adapted from the school that I’d like Edited by Blishen, E)

  • In a paragraph of not more than 90 words describe the kind of school the students would like.                                                                                                                              (14mks)

Rough copy

      Final copy

  • State the complaints the students make about modern schools.                                 (6mks)
  • (a) Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Rubashov heard the sound of several people marching down the corridor in step. His first thought was now the beating – up will start. He stopped in the middle of the cell, listening, his chin pushed forward. The marching steps came to a halt before one of the neighbouring cells, a low command was heard, the keys jangled. Then there was silence.

Rubashov stood stiffly between the bed and the bucket, held his breath, and waited for the first scream. He remembered that the first scream, in which terror still predominated over physical pain was usually the worst, what followed was already more bearable, one got used to it and after a time one could even draw conclusions on the method of torture from the tone and rhythm of the screams. Towards the end, most people behaved in the same way, however different they were in temperament and voice; the screams became weaker, changed over into whining and choking. Usually the door would slam soon after. The keys would jangle again, and the first scream of the next victim often came even before they had touched him, at the mere sight of the men in the doorway.

Rubashov stood in the middle of his cell and waited for the first scream. He rubbed his glasses on his sleeve and said to himself that he would not scream this time either, whatever happened to him. He repeated this sentence as if praying. He stood and waited; the scream still did not come. Then he heard a faint clanging, a voice murmured something, a cell-door slammed. The foot – steps moved to the next cell.

Rubashov went to the spy-hole and looked into the corridor. The men stopped nearly opposite his cell at No. 407. There was the old warder with two orderlies dragging a tub of tea, a third carrying a basket with slices of black bread, and two uniformed officials with pistols. There was not beating – up; they were bringing breakfast.

No. 407 was just being given bread. Rubashov could not see him. No. 407 was presumably standing in the regulation position, a step behind the door; Rubashov could only see his forearms and hands. The arms were bare and very thin; like two parallel sticks, they stuck out of the doorway into the corridor. The palms of the invisible No. 407 were turned upwards, curved in the shape of a bowl. When he had taken the bread, he clasped his hands and withdrew into the darkness of his cell. The door slammed.

Rubashov abandoned the spy-hole and resumed his marching up and down. He ceased rubbing his spectacles on his sleeve, put them in place, breathed deeply and with relief. He whistled a tune and waited for his breakfast. He remembered with a slight feeling of uneasiness those thin arms and the curved hands; they reminded him vaguely of something he could not define. The outlines of those stretched – out hands and even the shadows of them were familiar to him – familiar and yet gone from his memory like an old time or the smell of a narrow street in a habour.

The procession had unlocked and slammed a row of doors, but not yet his. Rubashov went back to the spy-hole to see whether they were coming at last; he was looking forward to the hot tea. The tub had been steaming, and thin slices of lemon had floated on the surface. He took off his glasses and pressed his eye to the spy-hole. His range of sight held four of the cells opposite Nos. 401 to 407. Above the cells ran a narrow iron gallery behind it were more cells, those of the second floor. The procession was just coming back along the corridor from the right; evidently they first did the odd numbers, then the even. Now they stood at No. 408; Rubashov only saw the backs of the two uniformed men with the revolver belts; the rest of the procession stood outside his view – range. The door slammed; now they all, came to No. 406. Rubashov saw again the steaming tub and the orderly with the bread basket in which only a few slices were left. The door of No. 406 slammed instantly, the cell was uninhabited. The procession approached, passed his door and stopped at No. 402.

                                                            (Adapted from Darkness of Noon by Koestler, A)


  • What cell is Rubashov in? Justify your answer.                                                          (3mks)  
  • How did the prisoners tell the kind of torture which was being used?                      (2mks)
  • Is there any evidence in the passage to suggest that Rubashov had been tortured before?


      (iv)   Why do you think Rubashov finds the hands of the prisoner in No. 407 familiar?


      (v)    How would you describe the tone of the passage?                                                  (2mks)

  • Identify two forms of imagery used in the passage and illustrate them, showing why each has been used.                                                                                              (4mks)
  • Explain the meanings of the following words as used in the passage.                 (5mks)
a)      Predorminated
  • Temperament
  • Orderlies
  • Outlines
  • Clanging
  • Read the following passage carefully and then answer the questions that follow.

Chege was a well-known leader in Kameno. He had only one wife, who had borne him many daughters but only one son. The other two wives had died during the great famine, without any children. The famine had been preceded by a very rich harvest. Then locusts and worms and a long drought came to bring death to many. Chege had barely survived. His daughters were now well married, apart from one who had died early. The other feared and respected him. For he knew, more than any other person, the ways of the land and the hidden things of the tribe. He knew the meaning of every ritual and every sign. So, he was the head of every important ceremony.

Many stories ran around him. Some people said that the he had the gift of magic. Others said that he was a seer and Murungu often spoke to him. And so they said that he could see visions of the future like Mugo wa kibiro, who a long time back prophesised the invasion of the Gikuyu country by the white men. Some even said that Chege himself claimed nothing. Ever since he had warned the people against Siriana Missionary Centre and they had refused to hear his voice, he had talked little, keeping all thoughts to himself. Chege had told the people of the ridges what happened in Murang’a, Nyeri and Kiambu. He told them of Tumu Tumu, Kikuyu, Limuru and Kijabe.

            They doubted his voice, saying

                        ‘How do you know?’

                        ‘See them, the butterflies’

                        ‘Butterflies? You have never left the ridge!’

‘They are there, beyond the ridges, putting up many houses and some taking the land.

                        ‘How could you have seen the light beyond?

                        ‘Fools, fools; he muttered to himself in despair.

Nairobi was already flourishing and the railway was moving across the country in the land beyond where not many from the ridges had been. And they lowered their voices and whispered together:

     ‘The white cannot speak the language of the hills’    

     ‘And knows not the ways of the land.’

     ‘But the white man had come to Siriana, and Joshua and Kabonyi had been converted. They had abandoned the way of the ridges and followed the new faith. Still people shrugged their shoulders and went on with their work whispering.

     ‘Who from the outside can make his way into the hills? Chege had been young. Now he was growing old. However, he remembered something in his old age. A light shone in his eyes, a flicker of hope. He would guard it and divulge the knowledge to none but the right one.                                              

                                         (Adapted from The River Between by Wa Thiong’o, N)

  • Why was it that the other elders feared and respected Chege?                            (2mks)
  • Why, do you think, did the people choose to ignore Chege’s warnings? (2mks)
  • What does the author mean by “How could you have seen the light beyond.     (2mks)
  • Why did the people believe they were safe on the ridges?                                   (2mks)
  • What two words or phrases tell us that the people believed that Chege had special powers.                                                                                                (2mks)


  • (a) Rewrite each of the following sentences according to the instructions given. Do not change the meaning.                                                                                                         (6mks)
  • Empty contents into a clean container.

(Rewrite in the passive voice)

 (ii)  “When we arrive in Mombasa and meet my aunt, I shall give you the book you lent me last month,” he says.

       (Rewrite in indirect speech)

(iii)  It was ten o’clock when I came. It is now twelve o’clock and I am still here

(Combine into one sentence using the word since)

(iv)  They played football all morning, although it was very hot.

       (Begin: In spite of……..)

(v)   Mr. Tomas would like to build a house, but he has too little money.

       (Begin: If Mr. Tomas……..)

(vi)  Joan says that she likes potatoes better than fruits.

(Rewrite using prefers)

  • Replace the underlined words with the correct form of phrasal verb.             (5mks)
  • I unexpectedly met John in town yesterday.              
  • The school was isolated by the impassable road.
  • The act of harassing new students has not disappeared.
  • Our parents day has been postponed.
  • Ensure that you bring the money
  • Fill in the blank space in each of the following sentences with the most appropriate form of the word in brackets.                                                                                                           (5mks)
  • Anyone working abroad has to pay a lot for the _________________ of his goods to and from home. (carry)
  • He was sent away from school because of dressing _______________ (appropriate)
  • The ________________ of a university degree is an important goal in any one’s life. (acquire)
  • The music was played _________________ without any interruption. (continue)
  • He thought it pointless to make a false ________________ (assume).
  • Use the correct preposition to complete each of the following sentences.                    (5mks)
  • No one claimed responsibility _______________ stealing the book.
  • John requested me to charge that ___________________ Mr. Nyang’au’s account.
  • Satisfaction is a requisite ___________________ happiness.
  • Jane is good __________________ English.
  • That book is similar __________________ mine.
  • Punctuate the following passage.                                                                                 (5mks)

what do you think you are the gruff voice said it was the voice of fisi the hyena and anyone could have seen that he was in a very bad temper breakfasting replied Kamba of mushrooms he explained wont you have some ugh grolled fisi fancy eating those things but you stupid little tortoise I want meat.

  • Explain the difference in meaning between the following pairs of sentences. (4mks)
  • Kim said he expected to be here by noon.

 Kim said he hoped to be here by noon.

  • The teacher is concerned with the examinations.

The teacher is concerned about the examinations.





      (a) In not more than 90 words describe the kind of school the students would like.

Points to be raised are;

  1. Where discipline, regimentation and good manners are not all.
  2. They can talk with teachers on equal terms.
  3. Teaching is equated with quest for truth, beauty and integrity.
  4. Personality and brain, building come first and certificates last.
  5. Should change with the society and body of pupils
  6. A co-educational day school.

NB// Expect all the 6 points well described. 2marks for each and 2marks for linking words (continuity)

  • State the complaints the students make about modern schools.
  • Those in authority should realise that students are human beings.
  • They wouldn’t get on in an ideal school since they are used to being told what to do.
  • The system produces a puppet with facts / dates
  • It is boring.
  • Kills’ child’s enthusiasm for learning
  • School suppresses and thwarts one’s confidence.
  • Boarding, segregated schools which often cause social upsets and shyness.

NB// Expect any six points in note form.

  • (a) (i) Rubashov is in cell 404. The range of the four on the opposite side is 401 – 407. 407 is nearly opposite to his cell. After going to cell 408, they went to cell 406 which is uninhabited and then past his cell (404) to cell 402.

    Expect all the three, 3 marks

  • The kind of torture was told by the tone and rhythm of the screams. These varies depending on the kind of torture.                                                                             (2mks)
  • Yes   /  He says that he would not scream this time either.                                 (2mks)

                    (A mark for ‘Yes’ and the other for the explanation if not ‘yes’ no mark.)

  • It would seem that Rubashov had encountered the prisoner and had been harassed by him and this has gone from his memory like an old time or smell of a narrow street in a habour.                                                                                                            (2mks)
  • The passage in a resigned tone. The prisoners are represented by Rubashov seem resigned to the procedures in the cells.

1 mark for identification of tone and 1 for any plausible explanation. (2mks)

  • The two forms of imagery are personification and similes.                                 (2mks)


                    Personification e.g.

                    No. 407 was presumably standing…………..

                    Rubashov heard the sound of several people marching down the corridor

                    Similes e.g.

                    the arms were bare and very thin; like……….

                    Expect one illustration for each.

  • Explain the meanings of the words;

Predominated – had control over

Temperament – person’s nature in regard to feelings

Orderlies – attendants.

Clanging – loud ringing sound from metal – possibly from the door.

Outlines – tries showing the shape of the hands.

1mark for each: total 5 marks).

  • (i)  They feared and respected him because he knew too much about the tribe in regards to land and their secrets. (2marks – block)

(ii)  They ignored his warnings because they believed no one had gone beyond the ridges including Chege.

(iii)  The author makes reference to the happenings in Murang’a, Nyeri etc. Since they believed that nobody had gone beyond that area they wondered how Chege could have known all that.     (2marks)

(iv)  They believed that no one could ever get to the ridges (beyond the hills) and understanding their language.              (Expect the two points – 2 marks)

(v)   Why people believed that Chege had special powers.

  • He could see visions of the future
  • He knew the meaning of every ritual and sign.
  • Despite a terrible disaster that strikes the land he manages to continue living normally.

Expect any two: 1 mark for each (Total 2 marks)

  • (a)  (i)   Contents should be / must be / are to be emptied into a clean container.

(ii)  He says that when they arrive in Mombasa and meet his aunt they will give him the book he lent him last month.

(iii)  It is now twelve o’clock and I have been here since 10 o’clock.

(iv)  In spite of it being very hot, they played football all morning.

(v)   If Mr. Tomas had enough money he would have liked to build a house.

(vi)  Joan says that she prefers potatoes to fruits.

     (b)   (i)  ran into

            (ii) cut off

            (iii) faded out

            (iv) put off

            (v)  see to it.   

     (c)   (i)  carriage

            (ii) acquisition

            (iii) continuously

            (iv) assumption

  • (i)  for

(ii) to

(iii) for

(iv) at

(v) to              

  • “What do you think you are?” the gruff voice said.

It was the voice of Fisi the hyena and anyone could have seen that he was in a very bad temper. “Breakfasting”, replied Kamba, “of mushrooms,” he explained. “Won’t you have some?” Ugh! “grolled Fisi, “fancy eating those things. But you stupid little tortoise, I want meat.”

1 mark for each sentence well punctuated. No mark per sentence for two or more errors.

  • (i)   The first sentence means that Kim thought and believed that he would be at the place by noon. While in the second, he desired to be there by noon. (2marks)

(ii)   In the first sentence, the teacher interests himself or is charged with the responsibility of the examinations whereas in the second, the teacher is troubled or worried by the examinations whereas in the second, the teacher is troubled or worried by the examinations.                                                                                            (2marks)



  1. Poetry

Read the following poem and answer the questions which follow.

The masqueraders

When the crocodile crunches its prey

Is it pity or pain that moves it to tear?

When a dog crushes bones to nothingness,

Is it remorse that makes it weep?

Brides weep on their wedding days…….)

In this unsung and songless age,

We wear masks during the day,

We wear ourselves inside out,

To avoid the prying rays of the sun

That focus our action into question marks.

On this turbulent and shoreless sea,

We huddle together like rejected spirits

Revealing our essence to the shy moon

Like night-runners that have no shame

Betraying their secrets to the virgin sky

We wear ourselves the right side out

To show the stars that we grudge the sun.

Even our relationship with our neighbours

It punctuated with calculated apologies

Our accomplises proudly quip “Is all right”

We are not satisfied with reality

Our natural port is artificiality

In this unmourned unmorning age,

We stand at dusk with downcast eyes.

(Like bats ready for the midnight flight)

Swallowing flatteries and condoning pretences,

Mortgaging our substance for our shadows,

Even the destitutes embrace our plight

They complete with glee to subsidize the rich

Scorning the meaningless myth of the common man.

We love shadows

           they are unreal

We wear rubber teeth

           they can’t bite!

We walk at might

           to mingle with the dead.

We disregard the moon because it won’t scream

We regard our lives as an endless dream.

                                          Richard Ntiru.

  •   Who are the masqueraders?                                                                                      (2mks)
  •   What is the attitude of the poet towards the masqueraders?                                                (2mks)
  • Pick out three stylistic devices employed in the poem and explain their effectiveness in the poem.                                                                                                           (6mks)
  • What is the meaning of the following terms in ordinary language?                          

   Mortgaging our substance for our shadows,

   Even the destitutes embrace our plight:                                                                   (3mks)

     We huddle together like rejected spirits

   Revealing our essence to the shy moon                                                                   (3mks)

  • Give the meaning of Stanza 6 (lines 31 to 36).                                                           (2mks)
  • What is the relationship between the persona and the subject of the poem.            (2mks)
  • Oral Literature                                                                                                             (20mks)

(a) (i)  State the difference between riddles and proverbs.                                              (4mks)

     (ii) Write a riddle from your community, translate it and give the parts of the riddle.          


     (iii) For what audience is this riddle suitable: Why?                                                   (1mk)

(b) What makes a song more interesting when it is performed than when it is read?      (4mks)

(c) Give three difficulties you are likely to encounter when collecting oral literature material. How can these problems be solved?                                                                            (6mks)




  2. The pretenders. People who want to live in pretences, they do not condone truth, prefer shadows to real beings i.e. are unrealistic.                                                 (2mks)
  3. Scornful.

In the second last paragraph the poet seems to scorn the masqueraders by satirising their love for entopic things, things that would give satisfaction not for their worth but because they shield us from truth.

  • (a) Similes e.g. we huddle together like rejected spirits

Like night runners we have no shame

  1. These give a clear picture of what the masqueraders are the poet does this by making use of  things we encounter oftenly in society.
  2. Rhetoric questions e.g. Is, it pity or pain that moves it to tears?, Is it remorse that makes it weep?. These questions involve the reader / audience in the performance. He’s given an opportunity to jog his mind abit.
  3. Satire – the poet satires the masqueraders in his quest to portray them as being unrealistic as revealed in the second last stanza and.. Brides weep on their wedding days — etc this brings out the tone of the poem as being scornful.

Expect these three plus any other. 1mark for the style and another for the illustration. No mark for style without illustration and vice versa. If the effectiveness is lacking, no mark.

  • The masqueraders prefer shadows to our real beings because shadows can ‘witness’ all that they do and say without uttering anything. Those who have no money, food (the poor) have also taken up this mentality.

At night the masqueraders do all sorts of weird things because they know that it is not very bright – the moon doesn’t generate as much light as the sun.                                      (3mks)

  • The masqueraders prefer things that don’t have much significance to the significant such as shadows to real beings, rubber teeth to the real teeth and day to night since these don’t place their actions in focus.                                                                                   (2mks)
  • The persona is among the masqueraders. He looks at himself as part of the subject and that is why there is the extensive use of the 1st person pronouns for reference items e.g. our, me, etc.                                                                                                                                                    (2mks)
  • Oral Literature.
  • (i) Differences between riddles and proverbs.


  • Are predominantly used by children
  • Are less serious in content
  • Presentation involves a riddling process consisting of invitation to riddle, the riddle and the response.


  • Are predominantly used by adults.
  • Are more serious in content
  • Presentation is not restricted to a given process. It is used oftenly wherever elders are conveying words wisdom.

Expect two differences well contrasted (4marks)

    (ii)   The student should write a riddle and write its gloss (1mark for the riddle in the local language and 1 for the gloss). The student should then give the parts in the riddle given i.e

  • Invitation to riddle
  • The riddle itself
  • The response

    (iii)  The student should give a suitable audience for the title – is it children, adults etc. and explain why.

  • –    Tonal variations
  • Use of gestures and body movements.
  • Use of facial expressions.
  • Use of accompaniments
  • Participation in the singing and dancing
  • Dramatization of the dramatic techniques used.

Expect any 4 points, 1 mark for each.

  • Difficulties likely to be encountered in field work.
  • Language barrier
  • Hostility / mistrust
  • Financial constraints
  • Weather changes
  • Defects in recording equipment

Any three points, 1mark each.

            Possible solutions

  • Identify an interpreter / translator
  • Inform the relevant authorities in time and even organise to spend sometime with your subject before asking the questions.
  • Obtain adequate finances before hand.
  • Find out about the weather conditions and prepare in advance.
  • Carry a well tested functional recorder and reserve one if possible.

The three solutions that correspond (in number) to the difficulties given.



  1. Compulsory

Imagine you are a chief in your village.  After the hazards of the spread of malaria, you are asked by your District Officer to organize a day when you and your villagers meet so that you can inform them on the cause and control of malaria.  Prepare the speech you will give on this day.

  • Write out an appealing essay on any of the following topics.
  • As I walked down the path, I heard someone scream ……………(complete this story)


  • ………………… I wished it was a dream, but it was too late.  The damage had been done. (End a story like this)
  • Discuss:  Corporal punishment is necessary in schools.  (Give the pros and cons and show your conclusion)
  • Write a conversation between you and your teacher on the effects of the changing syllabus.





Forced from her village by the continous civil wars, Ramatu is exhausted by months of struggling to survive.  One of Sierra Leone’s million refugees ( a quarter of the county’s population ).  She used to earn a meagre living by weaving palm mats which she sold in the market.  But over the past year her eyesight has failed.  Now her vision is so blurred that, even close up, she cannot see to work, and cannot feed her young children.

A tall, thin woman of 40, she stands very straight in the long shaking queue outside a tin-roofed concrete building.  For five hours she has waited patiently with her daughter, knowing that the special eye clinic is here in the remote town of Kenewa for just one day.  This is her only chance of seeing properly again.

At last, she is inside, in a crowded room where eye charts are taped to the walls.  A man smiles, says hello and shines a light into her eyes.  Ramatu states impassively ahead.  David Pailxins, a 41 year old optician, examines her eyes.  Then rifting through one of several card board boxes, he produces a pair of tortoises hell glasses, with light plastic lenses.  They suit Ramatu beautifully.  Her face lights up and, after paying a token fee equivalent to the price of a bottle of coke, she leaves proudly, her sight self-confidence and mean of survival restored.

David is leading a team of four British Opticians, members of the vision Aid oversees charity.  Every year, around 60 volunteer opticians from all over Britain spend two or three weeks providing people in developing countries with otherwise unobtainable spectacles.  In ten years, the eye charity has brought that magical single encounter with an optician to more than 200,000 people in nine African countries, as well as India, Jamaica, Peru and Vietnam.

Sierra Leone, with a population of almost four and a half million spread over 28,000 square miles, has only four eye specialists and a couple of dispensing opticians.  They work in the city hospitals and have no time to travel into rural communities to serve people so poor they cannot afford meat, let alone glasses.  But for the past week Sierra Leone radio has been announcing where each days eye clinic will be held.

Now David turns to a shy, small boy.  Hitching his shorts up awkwardly over skinny hips, the boy whispers to the interpretes that his name is Kami.  He thinks he is about 12.  Kami has never had glasses.  He says he can see his pride and joy a cheap plastic digital watch, if he holds it close to his eyes.

David examines him with a retionsoope, an instrument which uses a light beam to measure the refractive error of the eye.  Taking ‘Zero’ to represent perfect vision, minus three is average for short – sighted vision.  More than minus six is considered high.

Kami, David discovers, is minus – 23.  Everything around him is one vast blur.  He cannot play with other children or go to school.  David fits him with minus – 20 lenses, the strongest he has.

For the first time in his life.  Kami can see.  He looks at David in delighted amazement.  Then laughing and hoping around, he hugs his beaming father and races outside.  ‘We’ll send Kami glasses to the full power he needs when we get back home”, David says, smiling broadly.

It is only 1P.m on this not February day, but David and his team, along with two Sierra Leonean optical students, have already examined more than 200 people.  Outside, in the baking-not market square, wait 400 other hopefuls – old men, women carrying babies, clinging children – all so determined to be seen that they queue with their noses pressed against the person in front, so no one gets ahead of them.

“We’ll work until it is dark”, “Says David”.  Then we’ll have to turn the rest away, because there’s no electricity.  Its heartbreaking not to be able to see them all, especially when you know the dangers and miseries they’ve endured”.


Write a summary describing the problems faced by people with poor eyesight in Sierra

Leonne, saying how ‘Vision Aid’ sets out to help them.  ( not more than 150 words)

Rough copy.

Fair Copy.


If a child reads without understanding, he is doing nothing to add to his experience, just as, if he reads and understands everything he reads, he may be adding to his factual knowledge, but he is not increasing his vocabulary and very little intellectual effort is going into his reading.  Without killing the desire to read, we must not allow a child’s powers of comprehension and interpretationto stand still.  Fortunately the child is usually helpful in this matter and is only too ready to move onto a more ‘grown-up’ book.  Very naturally, however, he will still gloss over words and passages that are too much for him, so that his understanding is superficial.  But he will learn a great deal by finding words in their right context.  The unconscious widening of vocabulary  is the best.  Next to that is voluntary use of the dictionary and any other sources of information, when the need arises.  A great step will be when the child takes the trouble to find out for himself.

We cannot rely on this, however, and it is necessary to enforce a closer study of suitable passenger so that the child may explore the complexities of the language more deeply.  In the lower forms, this should not be stressed too much, but higher up it should assume increasing importance.  This intellectual effort of digging out and interpreting the meaning of a passage is a thoroughly useful exercise.  Not only that; it is an essential exercise in a world littered with government forms, legal documents, written constitutions and learned theses on every subject under the sun.  Our aims in providing such an exercise should be to force the child to increase his vocabulary and to stretch his powers of comprehension and interpretation.  Too often , the passage is chosen to kill two birds with one stone – comprehension and appreciation – missing both of them.  True, appreciation stems from comprehension but comprehension should cover every aspect of the user of language.  Appreciation is, by definition, confined to that which is admirable.


  1. What sort of reading stimulates no intellectual effort in the child?                           2mks
  2. What sort of reading produces only a superficial understanding?                             2mks
  3. What type of reading has the greatest educational value?                                         2mks
  4. According to the passage, what is the best way of increasing ones vocabulary?       2mks
  5. Explain the meanings of the following expressions as they are used in the passage.                                                                                                                                                 8mks
  6. Powers of comprehension and interpretation                  
  7. (to) gloss over words and passages
  8. superficial
  9. to kill two birds with one stone.
  1. Why should it be necessary to enforce a closer study of suitable passages.               2mks
  2. Why is it not safe to rely solely on the child’s own reading efforts.                          2mks


                        Talking about the General elections soon to come in December 2002, several

factors are going to determine who will eventually win the Kacheliba seat.

The main issues before, during and after the campaign period will be those of insecurity and the persistent cattle rustling problem.  For many years, the Pokot of Kacheliba and the Karamojong of neighbouring Uganda have been carrying out cattle raids against each other.

Apart from the cattle rustling, markets for livestock and livestock products will also be a major factor.  Residents feel they have been exploited by unscrupulous traders from other parts of the country who offer very low prices for their animals.

There are few schools and learning institutions, contributing to low academic standards with education yet to take deep roots, there is need for more schools, a bursary scheme and a school feeding programme to boost in enrolment.

More health centres are also required to cater for the residents, given that the Kapenguria District Hospital is distant from most parts of the constituency.

The poor state of roads will also feature prominently.  Most people are forced to trek for many kilometres because there are no public service vehicles due to the pathetic state of roads.

The residents are also seeking a representative who can push for the creation of a sub-district in the area to ease administration. They argue that Kapenguria town, which is the West Pokot District headquarters, is almost 200kms from the furthest point of Kacheliba constituency hence, the cost of seeking services from district heads of department at Kapenguria is too high.

                                                Extract from E.A Standard, Friday August 2002.


  1. What are the issues that will feature during the campaign for the Kacheliba seat.                                                                                                                                        6mks

Rough Copy

Fair copy

  • Why do they need another sub-district?                                                               2mks
  • What are the two main problems the Kacheliba residents face?                          1mks
  • What contributes to the low academic standards in the area?  What measures

       should be taken to curb this?                                                                               1mk    

  1. Re-Write each of the sentences according to the instructions given after each.  Do not change the meaning of the sentences.                                                                  5mks
  2. She came here with a view of marriage.  (Finish ……. MarriedDo not use ‘because’ or ‘so that’. )
  3. She said she would rather read than watch the movie.

(Replace ‘would rather’ by ‘would prefer’ )

  1. “I must go home now,” Martha said.  ( Re-write in the indirect speech)
  2. I do not want any more coffee, thank you.(Begin:  I would rather………..)
  3. She walked all the way to the market.  She was very tired. 

( Combine using ‘although’)

  • Use the correct form of the word in the brackets to complete the sentences given below.                                                                                                                                       5mks
  • My brother recently (enter) the university
  • We (be) students in this school for the last five years
  • He (not visit) us since 1981
  • Now that I (finish) ‘Oliver Twist’ I shall read ‘ A Tale of Two cities’
  • A strong wind (blow ) all the afternoon.
  • After each of the statements, use the correct question tag.                                       5mks
  • They play football every Sunday…………………………………….…………
  • He collects stamps…………………………………………………..………….
  • Let us play another game…………………………………………………..……
  • He wouldn’t have passed school……………………………….………………..
  • You ought to go to school……………………………….……………………….
  • Use the correct phrasal verbs for the underlined word.                                            5mks
  • The police are investigating the criminal’s past.
  • The small boat capsized in the storm.
  • The teacher distributed the new books yesterday
  • He arrived late and was refused admission
  • She failed her parents when she refused to help them financially after all her promises.
  • Fill in the passage with appropriate preposition.                                                       5mks

When I was a little girl, is used to look________ life as an easy thing. ____________ the early 80’s my days were filled ______________________ lots of play, laughter and sleeping.  As I grew _________________________ an adult, life started taking a u-turn.  Now, my days are full___________________ hardwork, worries and sleepless nights.

  • Show the two meanings expressed in each of the following sentences.                   5mks
  • Visiting mothers-in-law can be annoying
  • The manager was anxious to please his customers as his staff.




  1. SUMMARY ( 20 MKS)


  • They can’t see to work
  • They can’t feed their young children
  • Children can’t do well in class
  • Children can’t play with their mates.
  • They are too poor to pay for their medication
  • They don’t have then own eye clinics
  • People affected with eye problems are too many.

Help from vision Aid

  1. The doctors provide glasses, cheap but effective
  2. These doctors don’t charge fees, instead, the patients pay only a token of what they can afford.
  3. Vision Aid has to come to this country all the way from Britain to cater for these peoples needs, at least once in a year.
  4. The clinic consists of a professional doctor from Britain working with at least two Sierra Leonean students who in the process are learning.
  5. These doctors work non-stop until very late in the evening to counter the shortage of electricity and the large number of patients.
  • a)  Comprehension –  20mks
  1. a)  Reading without understanding

b)  Reading and understanding everything he is reading.

  • Reading a more ‘grown up’ book where he will encounter words and passages that are too much for him.
  • The child finding words in their right context while reading.
  • The unconscious widening of vocabulary.
  • Explain the meaning of words and phrases used in the passage.
  • Powers of comprehension and interpretation
  • The child’s natural ability to understand and explain the meaning of new words.
  • (to) gloss over words and passages

try to give explanation or meaning of words and passages

  • superficial
  • having no depth of understanding ie shallow understanding of a word or passage.
  • To kill two birds with one stone.
  • make the child comprehend and appreciate a passage at the same time of reading.
  • This will help the child explore the complexities of the language more deeply.
  • To force the child to increase his vocabulary / and stretch his powers of comprehension and interpretation since the rate at which he would do it alone would be slow/ low.

2) b)  Comprehension. ( 10 mks)

  1. a)  Cattle rustling

b)  In security

  1. Markets for livestock
  2. Schools and learning institutions are few
  3. Less health centres
  4. Poor state of roads
  5. Needs for creation of a sub-district.

1 mk each max  =  6mks

  • a)  Kapenguria town that hosts the administration headquarters is very far

ie 200 kilometres away.                                                                                          1mk

  • The cost of seeking services from the town is expensive in terms of travelling and time.                                                                                                                             1mk
  • a)  Cattle rustling

b)  Insecurity               

(Due to wars with the Karamajong of Uganda over cattle raids.                                1mk

  • –  Because there are very few schools and learning institutions.                                 ½ mk
  • Build more schools, set a bursary scheme and a school feeding programme to boost in enrolment.                                                                                                                  ½ mk
  • a)  GRAMMAR.

i)    She came to be married

ii)  She said she would prefer reading to watching the movie

iii)  Martha said that she had to go home then.

iv)  I would rather have no more coffee, (thank you)

v)  She walked all the way to the market although she was very tired.


Although she was very tired, she walked all the way to the market.

b)  i)    My brother recently joined the university

      ii)    We have been students in this school for the last five years.

      iii)   He hasn’t visited us since 1981

  1. Now that I have finished ‘Oliver Twist’ I will read ‘ A Tale of Two Cities.
  2. A strong wind blew all the afternoon.
  • i)    don’t they?

ii)    doesn’t he?

  1. shan’t we?
  2. Would he?
  3. Oughtn’t you?      ( No question mark, penalise

½ a mark for each answer.

  • i)       Are investigating      –  looking into

ii)        Capsized                      –   turned upside down

  1. Distributed                   –  gave out
  2. Was refused  admission  –  turned away
  3. Failed                            –  let down.
  • At

In / during


Into / up as


  • i)  Visiting mothers-in-law can be annoying
  • Mother-in-law who are visiting the writer
  • The writer visiting mothers- in-law
  1. The manager was anxious to please his customers as his staff.
  2. The manager was anxious to please both his customers and staff
  3. Both the manager and his staff were anxious to please their customers.





Downhill I came, hungry, and yet not stawed

Cold, yet had heat within me that was proof

Against the North wind; tired, yet so that rest

Had seemed the sweetest thing under a roof.

Then at the inn I had food, fire, and rest

Knowing how hungry, cold, and tired was I

All of the night was quite barred out except

An owl’s cry, a most melancholy cry

Shaken out long and clear upon the hill,

No merry note, nor cause of merriment

But one telling me plain what I escaped

And others could not, that night, as in I went

And salted was my food, and may response,

Salted and sobered, too, by the birds voice

Speaking for all who lay under the stars,

Soldiers and poor, unable to rejoice

                                                      Edward Thomas.

  1. The rhyme scheme of the first stanza is:

Stawed A

Proof   B

Rest     C

Roof    B

     What is the rhyme scheme of the other stanzas?                                                               6mks

  • What is the poet saying in stanzas 1 and 2? Explain in your own words.                        2mks
  • Give any three stylistic devices used in the poem.  Illustrate your answer.                     6mks
  • What do you think is the relationship between the title and what the poet is saying?     2mks
  • Who is the persona in the poem?                                                                                      1mks
  • What is the theme of the poem?                                                                                       2mks
  • Describe the mood of the poem.                                                                                       4mks
  • What other title do you think would be suitable for this poem?  Give reason(s)             2mks


One day all the animals had begun to carve dancing drums.  The bees too had carved theirs.  Having finished making their drums, the animals wanted to play them, but they only gave a dull sound.  When the bees tried out their drums they gave a very clear note and the sound carried a very long way.

Because of this the other animals were most vexed and determined to take the bees’ drums.

The elephant then said,’ let me go; I will go first and see, and take their drums from them’.  When the elephant reached the bees and tried to take their drums they fell on him and stung and stung him.  The elephant fled right away.  When he got back to the other animals he said, ‘You have no idea how it hurts; no one will ever be able to take the bees’ drums from them’.

The animals drove him away scornfully, saying, ‘How so, great lord of the forest?.  We sent you, thinking you were the king of all the animals, and so strong, yet you have ended up as a coward’

The wild pig then said, ‘Let me go; I have long teeth, I will certainly manage to get the drums,’ He went off and reached the bees’ place, but suffered the same fate as the elephant.  As he got back to the other animals he said, ‘You have no idea how it hurts; no one will ever be able to take the bees’ drums.  ‘The animals drove him away scornfully.  The animals went one after the other to the bees, but all suffered the same fate and were stung by the bees.

Finally, the tortoise came up and said, ‘Let me go; I will manage it’.  The animals cried mockingly, ‘You useless little fellow, with your little legs and slow gait!  What would you go and do at the bees’ place?  How can you succeed where strong animals have failed?’

The tortoise got right away with the drums.  When he returned to his friends, they seized the drums and played and played them, saying to one another, ‘This is how we would have liked our drums to sound’.

The animals enjoyed the sound and the sweet rhythms and began to dance.  The tortoise wanted to join with them in their dance, but the animals pushed him aside, crying, ‘you useless little fellow! Do you want to dance to the music of our drums with your little legs?  Clear off!’

The tortoise said bitterly, How so?.  We have been living in the same village.  You others did not manage to go and fetch the bees’ drum; I went, and succeeded, and now you drive me away, saying I have little legs and I cannot dance.’

The sun set and the sun rose again.  The animals had gone to the forest, and the tortoise had stayed at home.  In the shelter where the animals usually met, a fire was burning.  The tortoise was sitting quietly, wondering how to get his own back.

The tortoise went to the animals’ shelter, made a bag of banana leaves, filled it with water, and hung it over the fire that was burning in the shelter; then the tortoise went home.

It began to rain.  The animals came back from the forest and settled down in the shelter, by the fire.  As they were chatting, suddenly one of them noticed the bag hanging from the roof the shelter.  They wanted to know what was in it, so one of them took a spear, thrust at the bag and pierced it; the water inside it poured out over the fire and quenched it completely.

That was how the tortoise got his own back.  Now, when he goes walking with his slow gait, you may know that he has a fire burning at home.  The other animals, ever since that happened to them, have never had a fire.


  1. State briefly and clearly what each of the following characters in the narrative represent.
  2. Elephant
  3. Tortoise
  4. Bees                                                                                                                3mks
  • What features of oral narratives are evident in this story?                                         8mks
  • What do you think is meant by: ‘Now when he goes walking with his slow gait, you

may know that he has a fire burning at home’?                                                          2mks

  • i)  With reference to the performance of an oral narrator you watched, state ways in

 which she / he made her/ his narrative lively and interesting.                              10mks

          ii)  In not more than four sentences, state what the main message of the story you heard

    was.                                                                                                                         2mks





1.         i)  Stanza  2  :  C                     Stanza 3:         E                      Stanza 4:         F

                              D                                             C                                             G

                              C                                             A                                             H

                              D                                             C                                             G

                        2mks                                              2mks                                        2mks

  • a)  In stanza one, the poet is telling us the condition of his body after the journey ie very tired,

           not very hungry and not freezing from the cold.

  • In stanza two, the poet is telling us how at the inn, his problems were catered for ie he was given food, a fire and a place to rest, and that during the night, it was very quiet except for the owl’s cry.                                                                                                        1mk
  • Stylistic devices used in the poem include:
  • The rhyme scheme eg.                                                                                     1mk

  Stanza  1  :     A        Stanza 2:   C        Stanza 4:    E         Stanza 4:    F

                         B                          D                            C                          G

                         C                          C                            A                          H

                         B                          D                            C                          G

  • Alliteration      eg                                                                                                        1mk

Had, heat  (Stanza 1; line 2)

How, hungry (Stanza 2, line e)

Food, fire  ( Stanza 2 line 1)

  • Repetition       e.g                                                                                                       1mk

Salted  –  repeated in the last stanza to emphasize how the persona lost interest in the food     

   form the birds cry that reminded him of the poor and the soldiers out in the cold  

   that night without food.

  • ‘The owl’ is related to the poet’s grievances ironically,  ie inspite of the comfort he had received through food, fire and rest, the owls cry reminded him of the fate of the others he had escaped from up the bill, thus, taking away his appetite and comfort.                                          1mk
  • A runaway soldier / captive                      Or the traveller
  • a)  Escapism   –  the poet has run away from the others camped up the hill for his own safety.                                Or

   b)  Guilt   –  the poet ran away from the others to seek comfort at the inn, ironically, the owls

                       cry reminds him of what the others are going through and he suffers from

                       reproach (guilt)

Or any other suitable theme + illustration  =  2mks
  • The mood is sentimental ie the poet’s heart is reached out to the poor and others suffering in the open sky that he looses his comfort and appetite at the inn.                                               4mks
  • The Runaway / The traveller                                                                                             1mk
  • Because, he’s run away from others / he’s been travelling down the hill and from the description in stanza one we know what he’s feeling like.                                 1mk


a)  i)  Elephant      –  Represents those people in the society who are known for what they have eg. Power and money but they reach in such cases where their power and money cannot help them.

  1. Tortoise  –  Represents those people in the society who are looked down upon because of their disabilities but in the long run, will prove   the society wrong by achieving what ‘the elephants’ failed using their disabilities.
  2. Bees  –  Represent those who have the talent.  After achieving something they will guard it so fiercely that they overlook certain measures to be taken and whatever they had guarded so is taken away from them effortlessly.

b)  Features of oral narratives evident in the story:

i)     Repetition e.g ‘stung and stung’ in the ninth paragraph line 3 – 4.

  1. Use of songs e.g the bees song:

‘O all you bees, with your dangerous stings, see, the drums are going………”

  1. Fable kind of narrative  – animals are behaving like human beings.  Just like personification
  2. Direct speech  –  The narrator uses direct speech ie face to face communication.  Just like dramatisation.

Or any other stylistic devices of the oral narrative.

  • The hero turned victim having his own back.  The tortoise was a hero, but he was victimised due to his own body features but he manages to revenge.
  1. The phrase is used to mean that the tortoise’ slow gait implies he is not in a hurry to search for  fire.  He is already kept his share at home ie he’s already taken precaution just like the phrase:  ‘ He’s gathered the can into the shelter before the rains came.
  • i)  –     Use of  song  –  to ease tension; relax the mood.
  • Use of direct speech  –  The narrator is forced to dramatise ie use gestures and facial expression for effective communication.
  • Dramatisation  –  His acting out as he told the story made the audience attentive while funny invitation of the characters in the narrative made the audience laugh hence relaxing the mood.
  • Repetition  –  His repeating of certain words, phrases and the song for emphasis drew the audience attention to what he was emphasising on.
  • Use of weak animal winning against the rest huge and strong / also drew the attention of the audience winning their hearts for the small and weak animal.
  • Use of the moral lesson  –  attracted audience attention and played an impact on their intelligence level as they learnedsomething new.

Any other suitable features

  1. The main message from the story is that don’t just despise someone because of the disabilities you see in them.  There might be something on him you didn’t see that will make him beat you at your own game.  On the other hand, the strong. Powerful and talented (witty people) shouldn’t think they are the final word because no one is perfect.  One time, they will get beaten at their own game.  They should only be careful with how far they are gone.

This will depend on the teacher and learners responses as long as they fit in the picture.



  1. Compulsory.

You are a school leaver looking for a college.  You have found an advertisement in the local newspaper, asking for applications to train as counsellor.  Write  letter of application.

  • There is need to create more job opportunities.  Suggest ways of doing this.
  • Describe a visit you made to an old friend in a far town from yours
  • Write an essay beginning with,

‘Everything comes to those who wait’




  1. The format should be of a formal letter.

Look out for the following.

  1. Sender’s address                                                                                                   1mk
  2. Addressers address                                                                                               1mk
  3. Salutation and comma                                                                                          1mk
  4. Heading                                                                                                                2mks
  5. Main body  –  grammar, vocabulary, punctuation, tense etc                                 10mks
  6. Complimentary closing (closing or ending)  ie (yours faithfully or yours sincerely)                                                                                                                                      2mks


  • Deduct the following for format

Any 2 items missing                                                                                   1mk

More than two missing                                                                              2mks

  • The letter should be brief and to the point
  • If the letter is too long deduct                                                                                                1mk
  • Introduction.
  • Must show the position of job opportunities
  • Must be broad minded and suggest practical ways of creating more opportunities
  • Organisation  –  ie paragraphing; flow of ideas                                                           5mks
  • Content           –  subject matter
  • Language use  –  Captivating language, spelling, grammar, use of vocabulary, punctuation, tense etc.                                                                                                                        6mks
  • –     It must be a story if not deduct up to 4mks
  • If the story is totally out of topic deduct up to 4mks
  • It must be a personal experience.  If not deduct 4mks
  • –     It must be a story if not deduct up to 4mks
  • It must begin with the topic sentence if not deduct 2mks from the linguistic mark.
  • If the sentence appears in the first paragraph deduct only one mark
  • If it appears elsewhere deduct 2 mks
  • If it is totally missing but the story relevant to the question deduct up to 4mks
  • If topic sentence is missing and the topic is irrelevant treat it as total irrelevant.  The candidate scores zero mark.




Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow:

Few evils in the modern world are more prevalent or more persistent than child labour.  In many parts of Asia, Africa and Latin America, millions of children, some as young as six, toil long hours for low or no wages in back-breaking or dangerous jobs, deprived both of schooling and of the pleasures of conventional childhood.  Many work alongside their parents on farms or in other family businesses; others, less fortunate, are sold into bonded slavery; millions more work in factories or sweatshops producing goods that eventually find their way to shops in New York, London or Munich.

Many consumers in richer countries recoil from the thought that their favourite jeans or that brightly coloured hand-woven rug in the living room are the products of such suffering.  Prodded by their customers, well-known western manufacturers and retailers are either withdrawing from countries where child labour is rife, or imposing strict codes of conduct banning its use by their suppliers.

On the face of it, these exercises in corporate social responsibility seem entirely laudable – even if their main motivation is to avoid publicity that can shred a corporate reputation.  No reasonable person can support child labour:  not only does it usually involve human suffering, but if it also deprives the children concerned of education; it ensures that they will remain as poor as their parents.  Equally, it is praiseworthy that some western firms and consumers are prepared to pay the extra costs involved for their suppliers to hire adults instead of children.  In fact, such costs need not always be high if companies manage their supply chains efficiently, eliminating the middlemen who are often the main beneficiaries of child labour, and if they take into account the productivity that a well-trained and well motivated adult workforce should deliver.

But such initiatives should also be subjected to an elementary test:  are they likely to bring closer the end of child labour or not?  Here, sadly, the evidence is far from encouraging.  One example is Bangladesh, one of the world’s poor countries, which has almost managed to double its exports of textiles and clothing to America since 1990.  As a result of American pressure, perhaps 30,000 children have been thrown out of their jobs in the country’s textile industry in the past two years.  A study by Oxfam, a British charity, found that far from going to school, many of these children have ended up in far more dangerous employment, in welding shops or in prostitution.

The sad truth behind child labour is that for millions of poor families, children are an economic asset and often their only one.  In many cases, their poverty means that such families are forced to give priority to the urgent – increasing family income – at the expenses of what many know to be the important – educating their children.  In other cases, families can afford to send their children to school only if they also work at the same time.  It is this family dilemma that makes laws, against child labour so difficult to enforce.  Thus in Mexico, children obtain forged birth certificates in order to secure jobs in the Maquiladora factories operated by American firms along the Northern border.  And it is this that makes worthy corporate codes of conduct liable to backfire:  the danger is that, far from contributing to the end of child labour, they merely shift it to shadier areas of the economy that are far harder to police.

So what should companies do?  Although there are no easy answers, some initiatives appear more promising than others.  One such is the effort that Lavi Strauss, a maker of jeans, has made to provide schooling for child workers in its suppliers’ plants in Bangladesh.

The provision of other benefits, such as medical care and meals, may also be appropriate.

In the long run, however, only higher living standards will put an end to child labour.  And that depends, among other things, on poor countries being able to increase their exports, in the way that Bangladesh is starting to do.  If consumers in rich countries really want to help the world’s working children, rather than merely assuage their own consciences, there are many ways in which they can do so – by pushing for debt forgiveness in the poorest countries, or by opposing projectionist trade rules that prevent the poor from exporting their goods.  In these ways they might help to stamp out the practice of child labour, rather than simply turning up their noses at it.

                                          ( Adapted from the economist 3rd June, 1995)


  1. Make notes on the evils of child labour                                                                      5mks
  2. In a paragraph of NOT MORE THAN 60 WORDS explain why it is difficult to enforce laws against child labour.                                                                                                    7mks

Rough Copy.

Fair copy.

  • In a paragraph of not more than 70 words, summarize the ways in which companies and the rich countries can ease the suffering of the poor countries.                                      8mks

Rough copy.

Fair copy.



Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

One of the most destructive human emotions is worry.  You are not born with the worry habit; you acquire it.  The majority of emotional things are caused by frustration, anxiety and worry, brought about by fear and ignorance.  The thinking processes are ‘strangled’ and rendered useless.  A person who is fearful is a prisoner of his own mind.  He WALLOWS in the trough and his mind rendering his conscious power inoperable because of sick, frustrated and confused thoughts.  ‘This state of mind’ leaves the individual a mental and physical wreck.

The greatest torture in the world for most people is to think, said Luther Burbank.  People who do not learn how to ‘think’ who allow a negative consciousness pattern to rule them, become emotional cripples who turn to alcohol or drugs to escape the reality of their negative existences.

It is impossible to hide from life.  Some people think that by moving from one place to another, they can leave their problems, worries and fears behind.  This is ‘ESCAPISM’ and it is irrational thinking.  The trouble with the ‘get away from it all’ attitude is that situations repeat themselves in the new environment.  Problems become your CO-PILOT when you seek to fly away from them.  The only place to find peace is within.  It is not found in a far away corner or in the taking of drugs or alcohol.

Alcoholism and drug taking are an admission that man cannot rule his problems.

However, a person who applies certain rules of life that transform thinking habits can experience harmony and peace of mind.

You can escape from the prison of worry, fear anxiety and frustration by using the power of your mind in an intelligent manner.  Learn to think positively.  When worry begins to upset you.  Know that your subconscious mind already has the answer to your problems and will give it to you when you relax and think quietly and rationally about it.

Ask ‘what is these I can intelligently respond to and constructively do?  Do not be anxious, do not cloud your mind with a dozen answers; take each step quietly and confidently and the worry will DISSOLVE as the answer to your problem is revealed.  Do not indulge in negative thought with some people this is a way of life.  If you allow yourself to partake of negative ideas and let them affect you emotionally, you cannot effectively eradicate them.  Bring into your mind all that is good.  Believe in the point of healthy, positive thoughts and in what constructive thinking can accomplish for you.  Your thoughts are a mighty force capable of bringing health happiness and prosperity.

                              ( adapted from HOW TO SUCCEED BY BRIAN ADAMS)


  1. In what ways are fear and worry destructive?                                                         4mks
  2. From this passage, what do we know about a person who turns to alcohol and drugs?                                                                                                                                    4mks
  3. ‘The only place to find peace is within’ Explain in your own words what the writer

means by this statement.                                                                                           3mks     

  1. What does the writer suggest one should do to overcome worry?                          4mks
  2. Explain the meaning of the following expressions as they are used in the passage.   5mks
  3. Wallows
  4. Emotional Cripples
  5. Escapism
  6. Co-pilot
  7. Dissolve.
  • Read the passage below and then answer the questions that follow.

When the scalding salt flat-began to crack under my boots, I knew I was approaching the lowest point in America.  Death Valley is 225 kilometres long, 24 kilometres wide and, in the centre 86 metres below sea level

Rain falls in the surrounding mountains and then rolls into the valley where most of it immediately evaporates.  The rest flows in a steaming muddy bag that lies just under a brittle salt crust, which refuses to support the weight of a man.  It takes the boot to the ankle, then the leg to the calf, the knee……..

Photographer Nick Nicole and I were trudging across the flats, brooding on rumours that, in some places, a team of horses or a man had been instantly sucked out of sight.  It was two in the morning, and we had been walking for hours.  With every step, the sharp crust scraped our shins and then rubbed salt into our wounds.

The desert sky was so clear I felt as if I were stranded in space.  The mountain – waiting to reveal themselves in the light of the rising moon – whispered to one another in warm, gusting breezes that swept across the valley.  The hot crusty floor, under the cold light of the twinkling stars, emitted a faint glow, like the radium dial of a watch.

Standing stock-still, I seemed to be sinking deeper.  My legs, which had been knee-deep in hot mud, were now braised to mid-thigh.  It was hard to breath I felt slightly faint.

I make my living writing about adventure.  I’ve trekked through sections of the Amazon and congo basins, lived with mountain gorillas in Central Africa, run some nasty rapids and surfed my Kayak through ice floes on waves thrown up by flowing glaciers.  But I was quickly discovering that I knew next to nothing about the desert.  What had I got myself into?

The idea this time was for Nick and I to hike from the depths of Death Valley to the highest point in the continental United States, the 4,418 metres summit of Mount Whitney, a mere 160 or so kilometres to the West.  Officials at Death Valley National Monument had tried to discourage us.  Mount Whitney was fine, they said, but Death Valley in June was a blast furnace.

A couple of groups had previously tried to make trips in summer, a ranger had told Nick, but he knew only a few who had made it.  ‘Ninety per cent of them quit the first day,’ he said.  ‘Its psychological.  Either that or poor planning.’

Since we were determined to walk from the bottom to the top of America, the Chief Ranger Dick Rayner asked us to file an itinerary.  He told us that the natural springs in the valley were undependable, so we stashed food and water along the route.

The night before we left, Nick studied Death Valley’s Victims, looking at the photographs of corpses baking on the floor of the valley.  ‘We’re going to die,’ he said.

                              (Adapted from an article by Tim Canhill Readers Digest July 1990)


  1. According to the passage, Death Valley is 86 metres below sea level in the middle.  What effect does this dept has on the temperatures in the valley?                                           1mk
  2. Confining yourself to paragraph three, give one reason why the writer and Nick Nicholas were trudging across the flats.                                                                                 2mks
  3. What figures of speech are used in paragraph four of this passage?  Illustrate your answer.                                                                                                                                3mks
  4. What aim does the writer and Nick Nichols have in this adventure.                       1mk
  5. Death valley is said to be a blast furnace in June, what does this mean.                 2mks
  6. What frightened Nick Nicholas before they began their work?                               1mk
  • Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given after each.  Do not change the meaning.                                                                                                         6mks
  1. Have you placed an order for the books which the science master put in a request for?

  (  Use ‘ordered’ and ‘requested’)

  1. I haven’t lost interest in football.  The reason is that I’ve been short of money.

(Rewrite as one sentence.  Use not ….  but  ….)

  1. It was too cold that we couldn’t go swimming.

(use ‘so’)

  1. When our chairman had to go to Nairobi, Mr. Omollo took his place.

Rewrite using ‘stand’)

  • Paul is too short to reach the top of the cupboard.

Rewrite using ‘enough’)

  • The decorator gave the walls a coat of green paint.

(Begin:  The walls..)

  • For each of the following sentences, replace the underlined words with a phrasal verb which begins with the word in brackets to convey the same meaning.               5mks
  • I notice that he has escaped his share of the washing up. (wriggle)
  • The city would only surrender when arms and ammunition supplies are exhausted. (yield).
  • Jane borrowed money from Joy and she has hoped in vain for repayment. (whistle)
  • The train arrived at half past six (pull)
  • The old lady had saved a little money. (lay)
  • Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the correct preposition.                  5mks
  1. He assured the members ………………………………… his competence ……………………… accountancy.
  2. Thanks ……………………………… the physicians treatment, he soon recovered ……………………… his illness.
  3. I don’t care much ……………………….. chips.  I prefer meat ………………… chips.
  4. Sam’s uncle was very angry ………………….. him ……………………. staying out late.
  5. She was wearing a coat ……………………….. her blouse ………………. the morning.
  • Use the correct form of words in brackets to complete the sentences below.      5mks
  • Joy showed her (obey) when she readily accepted to make a cup of tea for her mother.
  • Njuguna expressed (grateful) for the donations he had received from friends.
  • You will have to (examination) each and every item if you hope to get the desired results
  • The girl accepted to take a trophy in (prefer) to a cash reward.
  • Robbery has become a common (occur) in this town.                                   
  • Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.                                                        5mks
  • Your hair needs (wash)
  • Do you really need (work)  so hard?
  • We regret (inform) you that our prices have gone up
  • I forgot ( get)  in touch with the headmaster
  • I don’t remember (see) her before.
  • Fill in the blank spaces with one of the given words in brackets.                         4mks
  • Roy is the ……………………………..member of this movement. (oldest / eldest)
  • Most Kenyans were eager to hear the ………………………………… news from their president ( latest / last)
  • The boy left the office without ……………………………………. explanation. (farther / further)




  1. SUMMARY (20 MKS)
  3. Long hours of toil
  4. Low or no wages
  5. Toilsome or dangerous
  6. Children deprived of schooling and pleasure of conventional childhood.
  7. Slavery                        1 mk each.  No mks for prose.           Total 5mks
  • For many families children are an economic asset and often their is only one.
  • Many families can only send children to school if they work as well
  • Children obtain forged certificates inorder to secure jobs in the maquiladora factories.
  • Children shift to shadier areas of economy that are far harder to police.

½ mk each      1mk for expression

deduct ½ mk for each grammar error upto 3 errors

                        total 7mks

  • Levi Straus has provided schooling for child workers in its supplies plant in Bangladesh.
  • Provision of other benefits such as medical care and meals
  • Raising living standards
  • Pushing for debt forgiveness in the poorest countries
  • Opposing protectionist trade rule that prevent the poor from exporting their goods.

1 ½mk  each  ½ mk for expression

deduct ½ mk for each grammar

error up to 3 errors.                8mks

  1. Fear and worry 
  2. Causes a majority of emotional ills
  3. Strangles and render useless the thinking process
  4. Makes one a prisoner of his own mind
  5. Renders conscious power inoperative
  6. Leads to mental and physical breakdown.
  1. A person who turns to alcohol and drugs in one who has not learnt to think positively.
  2. One can only find peace if he accepts his problems and think about them positively without fear and worry.
  3. To overcome worry one should.
  4. Learn to think positively
  5. Know that your subconscious mind already has an answer to your problems
  6. Relax and think quietly and rationally about your problems.
  7. Do not be anxious
  8. Do not cloud your mind with a dozen and one answer.
  9. Take each step quietly and confidently.
  • a)  Wallows                              –  Struggles
  • Emotional cripples –  people not in control of their feelings.
  • Escapism                           –  Avoidance of reality
  • Co- pilot                            –  Partner in controlling ones life
  • Dissolve                            –  Disappear.
  • When rain falls in the surrounding mountains, it rolls into the valley where most of it evaporates while the rest flows in a steaming muddy bog.
  • NICK NICHOLS and the writer were trudging across the flats brooding on rumours that a team of horses or a man had been instantly sucked out of sight.
  • a)  Personification:  The mountains waiting to reveal themselves on the light of the

rising moon whispered to one another.

  • Simile :  The hot crusty floor, under the cold right of the twinkling stars, emitted a

faint glow, Like radium dial of a watch.

  1. The writer and Nick Nichols aim at hiking from the depth of death valley to the highest point in the Continental United States.
  2. It is very hot and windy
  3. Nick Nicholas was frightened by photographs of corps baking on the floor of the valley.


  1. Rewrite according to instructions:                                                                           6mks
  1. Have you ordered the books which the science master requested?
  2. I haven’t been to the stadium for some time, not because I’ve lost interest in football but because I’ve been short of money
  3. It was so cold that we couldn’t go swimming.
  4. When our chairman had to go to Nairobi, Mr. Omollo stood in for him.
  5. Paul isn’t tall enough to reach the top of the cupboard.
  6. The walls were given a coat of green by the decorators.

b)   Phrasal verbs.                                                                                                            5mks

  1. Wriggle out of
  2. Yield up
  3. Whistled for
  4. Pulled in.
  5. Laid by.

c)   Prepositions                                                                                                               5mks

  1. of ……………………….in
  2. for ……………………from
  3. about ……………….to
  4. with ………………..for
  5. over ………………in


  1. Joy showed her obedience when she readily accepted to make a cup of tea for her mother.
  2. Njuguna expressed gratitude for the donations he had received from friends.
  3. You will have to examine each and every item if you hope to get the desired results
  4. The girl accepted to take a trophy in preference to a cash reward.
  5. Robbery has become a common occurrence in this town.                                        5mks

e)   Putting verbs in brackets in the correct form.                                                        5mks

  1. Your hair needs washing
  2. Do you really need to work so hard?
  3. We regret to inform you that our prices have gone up
  4. I forgot to get in touch with the headmaster
  5. I don’t remember seeing her before.

f)                                                                                                                                       4mks

  1. Eldest
  2. Latest
  3. Further





Ogun kills on the right and destroys on the right.

Ogun kills on the left and destroys on the left.

Ogun kills suddenly in the house and suddenly in the field.

Ogun kills the child with the iron with which it plays

Ogun kills in silence.

Ogun kills the thief and owner of the stolen goods.

Ogun kills the owner of the slave – and the slave runs away.

Ogun kills  the owner of thirty Liwofa’ (pawns and his money)

Wealth and children disappear.

Ogun kills the owner of the house and paints the hearth with his blood.

Ogun is the death who pursues a child until it runs into the bush.

Ogun is the needle that pricks at both ends

Ogun has water but he washes in blood.

Ogun do not fight me.  I belong only to you.

The wife of Ogun is like a tim (decorated leather cushion)

She does not like two people to rest on her.

Ogun has many gowns.  He gives them all to the beggars.

He gives on to the council – the council dyes it in camwood

He gives one to the cattle-egret the cattle-egret leaves it white.

Ogun is not like pounded yam;

Do you think you can knead him in your hand

And eat of him until you are satisfied?

Ogun is not like maize gruel

Do you think you can knead him in your hands

And eat him until you are satisfied?

Ogun is not like something you can throw in your cap

Do you think you can put on your cap and walk away with him?

Ogun scatters his enemies

When the butterflies arrive at the place where the cheetah excretes.

They scatter in all directions.

The light shinning on Oguns face is not easy to behold.

Ogun, let me not see the red of your eye.

Ogun sacrifices an elephant to his head

Master of iron, head of warriors

Ogun, chief of robbers.

Ogun wears of bloody cap

Ogun has four hundred wives and one thousand cows and hundred chicken.

Ogun, the fire that sweeps the forest

Ogun’s laughter is no joke.

Ogun eats two hundred earthworms and does not vomit.

Ogun is crazy Orisha (deity) who still asks questions after 780 years.

Another I can reply, or whether I cannot reply,

Ogun please don’t ask me anything.

The lion never allows anybody to play with his cub.

Ogun will never allow his child to be punished

Ogun do not reject me!

Does the woman who spins ever reject a spindle?

Does the woman who dyes ever reject a cloth?

Does the eye that sees ever reject a sight?

Ogun, do not reject me.

(Ogun needs his worshippers)

(Ogun – a god of iron and iron).


  1. Classify this song and give a reason for your answer.                                                      2mks
  2. Identify four economic aspects of the community described in the song.  In each case, give evidence for your answer.                                                                                                          8mks
  3. Explain the following phrases as they are used in the song.                                             4mks
  4. ‘Oguk kills the thief and the owner of the stolen goods
  5. “Ogun is not like poundered yam”
  • Identify and explain three images used in the song.                                                        6mks

Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow.


Yes, tell us

Tell us where it is situated

Your goldmine that never runs dry

That feeds you with shining gold

To keep you in the millionaire city.

Tell us from where you mine your gold all day long

To make another stride away from the millionaire city

With the wake of everyday

Your eyes greedily fixed to the city ahead

The magnificent billionaire city.

Their eyes are down cast

Anger simmers in their dry

Sunken sockets

The eyes of the many

Whose lips are not in your favour

Whose curses are spat on you

To whom your sight spells danger

Their common talk bears meaning

How much do you get as a director?

Their inflated estimate goes to twenty thousand shillings

Tell us where twenty thousand shillings bought a limousine

And built ten tourist hotels in the city

Tell us when it bought a private plane

Tell us when it built a multi-million mansion

Yes, tell us.

Tell us where your goldmine is

So that we can make an early gold rush

So that we can join you in the millionaire city

And never will our lips be against you

Our curses on you shall fade

As the hands of all shall dig into the earth

To prospect for gold in plenty

In the rush to millionaire city.


  1. i)  Who is being addressed in the poem?                                                                    2mks

ii)  What is the poet attitude towards the you?                                                          2mks

  • i)  Identify two rhetoric questions and discuss their use in the poem.                       4mks

ii)  What is the effect of repetition in the poem?                                                        4mks

  • Identify and illustrate any two themes brought out in the poem.                              4mks
  • Explain the meaning of the following as used in the poem

i)  Whose lips are not in your favour.                                                                          2mks

ii)  Your goldmine that never runs dry





  1. i)  –  A corrupt politician
  2. a corrupt civil servant
  3. a corrupt person in a government position

1 mk any of the above)

  • He lives beyond his means or earnings. “tell us where 20,000 bought a Limousine”.

ii)  –  The poet is critical / scornful / satirical / bitter/ provocative towards the year.

                  1mk for identification)

  • he asks him to show him where the goldmine is so that they can join in

1 mk for illustration

total = 2mks

  • i)  1.  “Where is your goldmine?”                                                                               1mk

     2.  “How much do you earn as a director?                                                            1mk


  1. It is used to effect ridicule and to express the poet’s doubts / suspicion over the existence of a goldmine.
  2. It also ridicules and expresses disgust at the ‘you’ in the poem.                          1mk

Total 4mks

           ii)  Repetition:  “Tell us………………..”                                                                    1mk

                Illustration:   It emphases (1mk)  the poet’s feelings of betrayal                            1mk

                                       And denial                                       1mk     total 4mks

                        (NB:  No mark if repeated line is not quoted.

  • Corruption (Greed / selfishness                                                                            1mk

2.  Poverty / want / Envy / inequality:                                                                              1mk

the you is contrasted with the poor / deprived who are angry and emaciated at the lack of their basic needs.                                 1mk

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